The Refurbishment and Upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman Lidar

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The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Raman lidar (CARL) is an autonomous, turn-key system that profiles water vapor, aerosols, and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle for days without attention (Goldsmith et al. 1998). CARL was first deployed to the Southern Great Plains CRF during the summer of 1996 and participated in the 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive operational periods (IOPs). Since February 1998, the system has collected over 38,000 hrs of data (equivalent of almost 4.4 years), with an average monthly uptime of 62% during this time period. This unprecedented performance by CARL makes it ... continued below

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Turner, D.D. & Goldsmith, J.E.M. March 18, 2005.

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The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Raman lidar (CARL) is an autonomous, turn-key system that profiles water vapor, aerosols, and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle for days without attention (Goldsmith et al. 1998). CARL was first deployed to the Southern Great Plains CRF during the summer of 1996 and participated in the 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive operational periods (IOPs). Since February 1998, the system has collected over 38,000 hrs of data (equivalent of almost 4.4 years), with an average monthly uptime of 62% during this time period. This unprecedented performance by CARL makes it the premier operational Raman lidar in the world. Unfortunately, CARL began degrading in early 2002. This loss of sensitivity, which affected all observed variables, was very gradual and thus was not identified until the autumn of 2003. Analysis of the data suggested the problem was not associated with the laser or transmit portion of the system, but rather in the detection subsystem, as both the background values and the peak signals showed a marked decreases over this time period. The loss of sensitivity of a factor of 2-4, depending on the channel, resulted in higher random error in the retrieved products, such as the aerosol backscatter coefficient and water vapor mixing ratio. Figure 1 shows the random error at 2 km for aerosol backscatter coefficient (top) and water vapor mixing ratio (middle), in terms of percent of the signal for both average daytime (red) and nighttime (blue) data from 1998 to 2005. The seasonal variation of water vapor is easily seen in the random error in the water vapor mixing ratio data. The loss of sensitivity also affected the maximum range of the usable data, as illustrated by the dramatic decrease in the maximum height seen in the water vapor mixing ratio data (bottom). This degradation, which results in much larger random errors, greatly hinders the analysis of data sets such as the Aerosol IOP (March 2003) and the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment (December 2003). The degradation and its impact on the Aerosol IOP analysis are reported in Ferrare et al. 2005.

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OSTI as DE00841473

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  • Fifteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, Daytona Beach, FL (US), 03/14/2005--03/18/2005

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  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 841473
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc779978

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  • March 18, 2005

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  • Dec. 3, 2015, 9:30 a.m.

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  • April 7, 2016, 2:10 p.m.

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Turner, D.D. & Goldsmith, J.E.M. The Refurbishment and Upgrade of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Raman Lidar, article, March 18, 2005; Richland, Washington. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc779978/: accessed August 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.