A Comprehensive Study of Fracture Patterns and Densities in The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography Page: 2 of 40
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2. Personnel of Project
Peter E. Malin, Principal Investigator; Professor of Geophysics, Duke University Division of
Earth and Ocean Sciences.
Eylon Shalev, Senior Research Scientist, Duke University Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences.
Min Lou, Research Associate, Duke University Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences.
Silas M. Simiyu, Geothermal Exploration Manager, KenGen Company, Naivasha, Kenya: on
leave for project's 3rd year at Duke University Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences.
Anastasia F. Stroujkova, PhD student, Duke University Division of Earth and Ocean Science.
Windy A. McCausland, MS student, Duke University Division of Earth and Ocean Science.
3. Executive Summary
In this project we developed a method for using seismic S-wave data to map the patterns and
densities of sub-surface fractures in the NW Geysers Geothermal Field. 1) This project adds to
both the general methods needed to characterize the geothermal production fractures that supply
steam for power generation and to the specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. 2) By
locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power
development with the targeting of high production geothermal wells. 3) The results of the
project having been transferred to both US based and international geothermal research and
exploration agencies and concerns by several published papers and meeting presentations, and
through the distribution of the data handling and other software codes we developed.
Our project extended over a 3 year time period. It included extensive compilation of data from
existing and past seismic networks surrounding the Geysers Geothermal area. The study focused
on identifying, measuring, modeling, and interpreting the effects of fractures on seismic S-waves
at this site, specifically the North West Geysers. Computer codes to handle and process such
observations were developed. The last year of our project included a DOE guided, scientific and
collaborative exchange with Dr. Silas Simiyu of the Kenya Electric Power Generating Company,
Inc., the national power company of the Government of Kenya.
As part of our collaboration with industry and other exploration groups, we provided a training
course on S-wave splitting tomography. The notes from this course are included in this Final
Report, as are compressed versions of the publications resulting from from our work.
A further benefit to both the geothermal research community and geothermal industry resulted
from our collaboration with KenGen: after hearing our presentation of our results on this project
at the World Geothermal Congress in Japan, we were approached by the World Bank and United
Nations Environmental Program to begin a similar project in the East African Rift Region.
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Malin, Peter E.; Shalev, Eylon; Lou, Min; Simiyu, Silas M.; Stroujkova, Anastasia & McCausland, Windy. A Comprehensive Study of Fracture Patterns and Densities in The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography, report, February 24, 2004; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc779483/m1/2/: accessed April 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.