Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

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We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that ... continued below

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Smith, J.R. & Aceves, S. April 26, 1995.

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We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO{sub x}. Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today`s gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

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25 p.

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OSTI as DE95013438

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  • 1995 DOE/NREL hydrogen program review, Coral Gables, FL (United States), 18-21 Apr 1995

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  • Other: DE95013438
  • Report No.: UCRL-JC--120151
  • Report No.: CONF-9504160--3
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-48
  • DOI: 10.2172/95252 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 79117
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc741553

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  • April 26, 1995

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  • Oct. 19, 2015, 7:39 p.m.

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  • Feb. 16, 2016, 7:38 p.m.

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Smith, J.R. & Aceves, S. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design, article, April 26, 1995; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc741553/: accessed August 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.