High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources Page: 2 of 15
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The increasing demand for high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams for nuclear and high-
energy physics has driven the development of various methods to feed solids into ECR ion source
plasmas. The most important techniques are (1) evaporation from external furnaces, (2) use of
volatile chemical compounds, (3) online chemical synthesis, (4) sputtering, (5) evaporation by
vacuum arc or laser beam, and (6) direct insertion . From all these methods mentioned above
the oven technique is the least intrusive to produce metal ion beams, especially if pure metals can
be used. The production methods at LBNL include the use of gaseous compounds, the oven
technique, the direct insertion method, and the MIVOC method. 41 different metal ion beams
have been produced with the LBL ECR or the AECR-U ion sources so far. Figure 1 shows the
periodic system with all the metals tested in our ion sources so far and Table 1 shows a few high
and medium charge states metal ion beams produced by the LBNL AECR-U.
II. METAL ION BEAM PRODUCTION USING THE OVEN TECHNIQUE
Both the LBL ECR and the AECR-U ion sources are built with radial access. Six radial slots
between the sextupole magnet bars provide additional pumping and easy access to the plasma
chamber for ovens and feedthroughs. Two types of radial ovens are used at LBNL. The low
temperature oven is indirectly heated and can be operated at temperatures up to 650 C . The
high temperature oven consist of a resistance heated Ta or W furnace operating at temperatures up
to 2100 C . Generally a metal vapor pressure of about 10-3 to 10-2 mmHg is required inside the
oven (at an oven aperture of about 3mm diameter) to supply the right amount of atoms to the ECR
plasma. The temperature needed to produce a new metal ion beam can be estimated from the
vapor pressure curve of the respective metal. Beside the temperature required to evaporate the
metal, chemical compatibility of the hot liquid metal and the crucible must be considered . For
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Wutte, Daniela; Abbott, S.; Leitner, Matthaeus A. & Lyneis, Claude M. High intensity metal ion beam production with ECR ion sources, article, September 3, 2001; California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc740271/m1/2/: accessed April 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.