The influence of sub-100 nm scattering on high-energy electron beam lithography Page: 4 of 21
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after spin coating. The resist is soft baked at 170C for 30 minutes. After electron
beam exposure it is developed in 0.26N tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide
(TMAH), (Shipley corporation LDD26-w) for 1 minute. A computer program
prepares the data sets with a series of dot shapes increasing in dose in a geometric
progression. The data sets cover a large range of 9 orders of magnitude so that
short range, intermediate range, and long range scattering is observed on the same
wafer. Figure 2 shows low voltage SEM micrographs of actual exposed dots.
Figure 3 shows a plot of dot radius data taken on the same wafer at 50KV and
100KV on silicon. The 100KV exposure was done first and then the voltage was
reduced. The wafer remained in the system while the high voltage was changed
and the system realigned. The wafer was then exposed with the dot pattern again
at 50KV and developed. Therefore any differences due to development conditions
of temperature or time were eliminated. In-vaccum delay sensitivity of HSQ over
short times has not been observed. Because the sensitivity at 50KV differs from
100KV by a factor of 2, the 50KV data is plotted versus twice the actual dose,
normalizing the data for the resist sensitivity. Figure 4 shows dot data on a
Cr(5nm)/Au(12nm) plating base on silicon, a hard baked 180nm thick polymer
layer on silicon, and a bare silicon substrate. Figure 4 suggests that the plating
base and polymer materials do not significantly change the form of the scattering
function. The amount of scatter is different between the different substrates and
lithography on the polymer is generally higher resolution. The area around the
dots of the plating base wafer is electroplated with nickel to improve SEM contrast
and mirror the conditions in which diffractive x-ray optics are fabricated. This data
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Anderson, Erik H.; Olynick, Deidre L.; Chao, Weilun; Harteneck, Bruce & Veklerov, Eugene. The influence of sub-100 nm scattering on high-energy electron beam lithography, article, August 1, 2001; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc740262/m1/4/: accessed November 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.