The influence of sub-100 nm scattering on high-energy electron beam lithography Page: 1 of 21
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The influence of sub-100nm scattering on
High-Energy Electron Beam Lithography
Erik H. Anderson, Deirdre L. Olynick, Weilun Chao,
Bruce Harteneck, and Eugene Veklerov
E. 0. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720
Electron beam lithography tools have evolved in the direction of higher beam
energy in order to achieve high-resolution, fine feature definition. As the beam
energy is increased, the "forward" scattering is reduced and the "backscatter"
range is increased. Over the years, tools became available at 20KV then 50KV and
now 100KV operation is common. Operation at higher voltages has several
advantages, such as better resolution and process latitude due to reduced forward
scattering, and a few disadvantages such as higher dose requirements, substrate
heating, and lower contrast for back scatter electron alignment and calibration
signals (due to reduced primary electron backscattering generation in thin flim).
The backscatter range for 100KV on silicon is about 27pm compared to 8pm at
50KV resulting in different strategies for efficient proximity correction. However,
even at 100KV, scattering in an intermediate range is observed and must be taken
into account in order to achieve good line-width control at the highest resolution.
Measurements of the scattering range for both 50KV and 100KV have been made
using the point exposure distribution measurement technique.' For comparison,
measurements taken on the same wafer at different voltages, show that 50KV and
100KV scattering range functions overlap, after normalizing for the different resist
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Anderson, Erik H.; Olynick, Deidre L.; Chao, Weilun; Harteneck, Bruce & Veklerov, Eugene. The influence of sub-100 nm scattering on high-energy electron beam lithography, article, August 1, 2001; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc740262/m1/1/: accessed February 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.