Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

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Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in ... continued below

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Lewis, Larry N. & Lemmon, F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. September 30, 2001.

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Description

Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

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OSTI as DE00791421

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  • Other Information: PBD: 30 Sep 2001

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  • Report No.: DOE/CH/10931
  • Grant Number: FC07-98CH10931
  • DOI: 10.2172/791421 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 791421
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc737609

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  • September 30, 2001

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Oct. 19, 2015, 7:39 p.m.

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  • Jan. 3, 2017, 2:17 p.m.

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Lewis, Larry N. & Lemmon, F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand, report, September 30, 2001; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc737609/: accessed August 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.