OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING

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This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent ... continued below

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172 pages

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Colonmer, Hector; Ganesan, Prabhu; Subramanian, Nalini; Haran, Dr. Bala; White, Dr. Ralph E. & Popov, Dr. Branko N. September 1, 2002.

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Description

This project focused on addressing the two main problems associated with state of art Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, namely loss of cathode active material and stainless steel current collector deterioration due to corrosion. We followed a dual approach where in the first case we developed novel materials to replace the cathode and current collector currently used in molten carbonate fuel cells. In the second case we improved the performance of conventional cathode and current collectors through surface modification. States of art NiO cathode in MCFC undergo dissolution in the cathode melt thereby limiting the lifetime of the cell. To prevent this we deposited cobalt using an electroless deposition process. We also coated perovskite (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3}) in NiO thorough a sol-gel process. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of Co and perovskites coated electrodes is similar to that of the bare NiO cathode. Co and perovskite coatings on the surface decrease the dissolution of Ni into the melt and thereby stabilize the cathode. Both, cobalt and provskites coated nickel oxide, show a higher polarization compared to that of nickel oxide, which could be due to the reduced surface area. Cobalt substituted lithium nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}) and lithium cobalt oxide were also studied. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} was synthesized by solid-state reaction procedure using lithium nitrate, nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxalate precursor. LiNi{sub x}Co{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} showed smaller dissolution of nickel than state of art nickel oxide cathode. The performance was comparable to that of nickel oxide. The corrosion of the current collector in the cathode side was also studied. The corrosion characteristics of both SS304 and SS304 coated with Co-Ni alloy were studied. This study confirms that surface modification of SS304 leads to the formation of complex scales with better barrier properties and better electronic conductivity at 650 C. A three phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell cathode and the complete fuel cell. The homogeneous model is based on volume averaging of different variables in the three phases over a small volume element. This approach can be used to model porous electrodes as it represents the real system much better than the conventional agglomerate model. Using the homogeneous model the polarization characteristics of the MCFC cathode and fuel cell were studied under different operating conditions. Both the cathode and the full cell model give good fits to the experimental data.

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172 pages

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OSTI as DE00808855

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  • Other Information: PBD: 1 Sep 2002

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  • Report No.: NONE
  • Grant Number: AC26-99FT40714
  • DOI: 10.2172/808855 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 808855
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc736708

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Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • September 1, 2002

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Oct. 18, 2015, 6:40 p.m.

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  • Jan. 3, 2017, 1:07 p.m.

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Colonmer, Hector; Ganesan, Prabhu; Subramanian, Nalini; Haran, Dr. Bala; White, Dr. Ralph E. & Popov, Dr. Branko N. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CATHODE LONG-TERM STABILITY IN MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING, report, September 1, 2002; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc736708/: accessed November 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.