Geothermal Heat Pumps in K-12 Schools -- A Case Study of the Lincoln, Nebraska, Schools

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Description

Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) have been shown to have a number of benefits over other technologies used to heat and cool buildings and provide hot water, combining high levels of occupant comfort with low operating and maintenance costs. Public facilities represent an increasingly important market for GHPs, and schools are a particularly good application, given the large land area that normally surrounds them. Nevertheless, some barriers remain to the increased use of GHPs in institutional and commercial applications. First, because GHPs are perceived as having higher installation costs than other space conditioning technologies, they are sometimes not considered as an ... continued below

Physical Description

93 pages

Creation Information

Shonder, J.A. May 2, 2000.

Context

This report is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this report can be viewed below.

Who

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this report or its content.

Author

Sponsor

Publisher

Provided By

UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serving as both a federal and a state depository library, the UNT Libraries Government Documents Department maintains millions of items in a variety of formats. The department is a member of the FDLP Content Partnerships Program and an Affiliated Archive of the National Archives.

Contact Us

What

Descriptive information to help identify this report. Follow the links below to find similar items on the Digital Library.

Description

Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) have been shown to have a number of benefits over other technologies used to heat and cool buildings and provide hot water, combining high levels of occupant comfort with low operating and maintenance costs. Public facilities represent an increasingly important market for GHPs, and schools are a particularly good application, given the large land area that normally surrounds them. Nevertheless, some barriers remain to the increased use of GHPs in institutional and commercial applications. First, because GHPs are perceived as having higher installation costs than other space conditioning technologies, they are sometimes not considered as an option in feasibility studies. When they are considered, it can be difficult to compile the information required to compare them with other technologies. For example, a life cycle cost analysis requires estimates of installation costs and annually recurring energy and maintenance costs. But most cost estimators are unfamiliar with GHP technology, and no published GHP construction cost estimating guide is available. For this reason, estimates of installed costs tend to be very conservative, furthering the perception that GHPs are more costly than other technologies. Because GHP systems are not widely represented in the various softwares used by engineers to predict building energy use, it is also difficult to estimate the annual energy use of a building having GHP systems. Very little published data is available on expected maintenance costs either. Because of this lack of information, developing an accurate estimate of the life cycle cost of a GHP system requires experience and expertise that are not available in all institutions or in all areas of the country. In 1998, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into an agreement with the Lincoln, Nebraska, Public School District and Lincoln Electric Service, the local electric utility in the Lincoln area, to study four new, identical elementary schools built in the district that are served by GHPs. ORNL was provided with complete as-built construction plans for the schools and associated equipment, access to original design calculations and cost estimates, extensive equipment operating data [both from the buildings' energy management systems (EMSs) and from utility meters], and access to the school district's complete maintenance record database, not only for the four GHP schools, but for the other schools in the district using conventional space conditioning equipment. Using this information, we were able to reproduce the process used by the Lincoln school district and the consulting engineering firm to select GHPs over other options to provide space conditioning for the four schools. The objective was to determine whether this decision was the correct one, or whether some other technology would have been more cost-effective. An additional objective was to identify all of the factors that make it difficult for building owners and their engineers to consider GHPs in their projects so that ongoing programs can remove these impediments over time.

Physical Description

93 pages

Source

  • Other Information: PBD: 2 May 2000

Language

Item Type

Identifier

Unique identifying numbers for this report in the Digital Library or other systems.

  • Report No.: ORNL/TM-2000/80
  • Grant Number: AC05-00OR22725
  • DOI: 10.2172/814076 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 814076
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc734222

Collections

This report is part of the following collection of related materials.

Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is the Department of Energy (DOE) office that collects, preserves, and disseminates DOE-sponsored research and development (R&D) results that are the outcomes of R&D projects or other funded activities at DOE labs and facilities nationwide and grantees at universities and other institutions.

What responsibilities do I have when using this report?

When

Dates and time periods associated with this report.

Creation Date

  • May 2, 2000

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Oct. 18, 2015, 6:40 p.m.

Description Last Updated

  • March 31, 2016, 12:51 p.m.

Usage Statistics

When was this report last used?

Yesterday: 0
Past 30 days: 2
Total Uses: 10

Interact With This Report

Here are some suggestions for what to do next.

Start Reading

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Citations, Rights, Re-Use

Shonder, J.A. Geothermal Heat Pumps in K-12 Schools -- A Case Study of the Lincoln, Nebraska, Schools, report, May 2, 2000; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc734222/: accessed November 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.