A New Approach for Fingerprint Image Compression

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The FBI has been collecting fingerprint cards since 1924 and now has over 200 million of them. Digitized with 8 bits of grayscale resolution at 500 dots per inch, it means 2000 terabytes of information. Also, without any compression, transmitting a 10 Mb card over a 9600 baud connection will need 3 hours. Hence we need a compression and a compression as close to lossless as possible: all fingerprint details must be kept. A lossless compression usually do not give a better compression ratio than 2:1, which is not sufficient. Compressing these images with the JPEG standard leads to artefacts ... continued below

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Medium: P; Size: 57 pages

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Mazieres, Bertrand December 1, 1997.

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Description

The FBI has been collecting fingerprint cards since 1924 and now has over 200 million of them. Digitized with 8 bits of grayscale resolution at 500 dots per inch, it means 2000 terabytes of information. Also, without any compression, transmitting a 10 Mb card over a 9600 baud connection will need 3 hours. Hence we need a compression and a compression as close to lossless as possible: all fingerprint details must be kept. A lossless compression usually do not give a better compression ratio than 2:1, which is not sufficient. Compressing these images with the JPEG standard leads to artefacts which appear even at low compression rates. Therefore the FBI has chosen in 1993 a scheme of compression based on a wavelet transform, followed by a scalar quantization and an entropy coding : the so-called WSQ. This scheme allows to achieve compression ratios of 20:1 without any perceptible loss of quality. The publication of the FBI specifies a decoder, which means that many parameters can be changed in the encoding process: the type of analysis/reconstruction filters, the way the bit allocation is made, the number of Huffman tables used for the entropy coding. The first encoder used 9/7 filters for the wavelet transform and did the bit allocation using a high-rate bit assumption. Since the transform is made into 64 subbands, quite a lot of bands receive only a few bits even at an archival quality compression rate of 0.75 bit/pixel. Thus, after a brief overview of the standard, we will discuss a new approach for the bit-allocation that seems to make more sense where theory is concerned. Then we will talk about some implementation aspects, particularly for the new entropy coder and the features that allow other applications than fingerprint image compression. Finally, we will compare the performances of the new encoder to those of the first encoder.

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Medium: P; Size: 57 pages

Notes

OSTI as DE00763151

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  • Other Information: Supercedes report DE00763151; PBD: 1 Dec 1997

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  • Report No.: LA-UR-99-4298
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-36
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 763151
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc719568

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is the Department of Energy (DOE) office that collects, preserves, and disseminates DOE-sponsored research and development (R&D) results that are the outcomes of R&D projects or other funded activities at DOE labs and facilities nationwide and grantees at universities and other institutions.

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  • December 1, 1997

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 29, 2015, 5:31 a.m.

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  • Feb. 29, 2016, 4:48 p.m.

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Mazieres, Bertrand. A New Approach for Fingerprint Image Compression, report, December 1, 1997; New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc719568/: accessed November 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.