30 years of high-intensity negative ion sources for accelerators

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Description

Thirty years ago, July 1, 1971, significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge following an admixture of cesium was observed for the first time. This observation became the basis for the development of Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for efficient production of negative ions from the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work-function. The emission current density of negative ions increased rapidly from j {approximately} 10 mA/cm{sup 2} to 3.7 A/cm{sup 2} with a flat cathode and up to 8 A/cm{sup 2} with an optimized geometrical focusing in the long pulse ... continued below

Physical Description

495 Kilobytes pages

Creation Information

Dudnikov, Vadim July 25, 2001.

Context

This article is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this article can be viewed below.

Who

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this article or its content.

Sponsor

Publisher

Provided By

UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serving as both a federal and a state depository library, the UNT Libraries Government Documents Department maintains millions of items in a variety of formats. The department is a member of the FDLP Content Partnerships Program and an Affiliated Archive of the National Archives.

Contact Us

What

Descriptive information to help identify this article. Follow the links below to find similar items on the Digital Library.

Description

Thirty years ago, July 1, 1971, significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge following an admixture of cesium was observed for the first time. This observation became the basis for the development of Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for efficient production of negative ions from the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work-function. The emission current density of negative ions increased rapidly from j {approximately} 10 mA/cm{sup 2} to 3.7 A/cm{sup 2} with a flat cathode and up to 8 A/cm{sup 2} with an optimized geometrical focusing in the long pulse SPS, and to 0.3 A/cm{sup 2} for DC SPS, recently increased up to 0.7 A/cm{sup 2}. Discovery of charge-exchange cooling helped decrease the negative ion temperature T below 1 eV, and increase brightness by many orders to a level compatible with the best proton sources, B = j/T> 1 A/cm{sup 2} eV. The combination of the SPS with charge-exchange injection improved large accelerators operation and has permitted beam accumulation up to space-charge limit and overcome this limit several times. The early SPS for accelerators have been in operation without modification for {approximately} 25 years. Advanced version of the SPS for accelerators is described. Features of negative ion beam formation, transportation, space-charge neutralization-overneutralization, and instability damping is considered. Practical aspects of SPS operation and high brightness beam production is discussed.

Physical Description

495 Kilobytes pages

Source

  • 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL (US), 06/18/2001--06/22/2001

Language

Item Type

Identifier

Unique identifying numbers for this article in the Digital Library or other systems.

  • Report No.: FERMILAB-Conf-01/204
  • Grant Number: AC02-76CH03000
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 783407
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc718148

Collections

This article is part of the following collection of related materials.

Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

What responsibilities do I have when using this article?

When

Dates and time periods associated with this article.

Creation Date

  • July 25, 2001

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 29, 2015, 5:31 a.m.

Description Last Updated

  • April 1, 2016, 3:33 p.m.

Usage Statistics

When was this article last used?

Yesterday: 0
Past 30 days: 1
Total Uses: 5

Interact With This Article

Here are some suggestions for what to do next.

Start Reading

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Citations, Rights, Re-Use

Dudnikov, Vadim. 30 years of high-intensity negative ion sources for accelerators, article, July 25, 2001; Batavia, Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc718148/: accessed September 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.