RHIC PERFORMANCE. Page: 1 of 6
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Submitted to: Quark Matter 2001 1
Stony Brook, NY, Jan. 14-20, 2001
Thomas Roser a
aBrookhaven National Laboratory
Upton, New York 11793-5000, USA
The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the first hadron accelerator
and collider consisting of two independent rings. It is designed to operate at high collision
luminosity over a wide range of beam energies and with particle species ranging from po-
larized protons to heavy ions. Construction of RHIC was officially completed in 1999. An
overview of the status of commissioning and machine performance for the first operation
period with gold beams is given.
1. RHIC HEAVY ION COMMISSIONING AND OPERATION
After an initial engineering run during 1999 cool-down of the two 3.8 km long cryostats
containing about 1000 super-conducting magnets started in February 2000 and operation
with gold beam, delivered by the injector chain consisting of the Tandem, Booster, and
AGS, started in April. First collisions in all four collider experiments were observed
during June 2000 at an initial beam energy of about 28 GeV/nucleon. Collisions at this
years target energy of about 65 GeV/nucleon and operation at a luminosity of up to
2 x 1025 cm-2 s-1 was established during July and August.
Fig. 1 shows the layout of RHIC and the three injector accelerators Tandem, Booster
and AGS. The gold ions are stepwise ionized as they are accelerated to RHIC injection en-
ergy, at which point they are fully ionized. The performance of the injector is summarized
in Table 1. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerates Au-1 from a sputter source to about
1 MeV/nucleon. The 530 ms long beam pulse is stripped to Au+32 and injected into the
Booster using horizontal and vertical phase space painting. After acceleration to about
100 MeV/nucleon the beam is stripped to Au+77 and transferred to the AGS where it is
accelerated to the RHIC injection kinetic energy of 8.6 GeV/nucleon. During acceleration
in the AGS the beam bunches from the Booster are merged to reach the required intensity
of about 1 x 109 Au ion per bunch at a longitudinal emittance of 0.3eVs/nucleon. The
final stripping to bare Au+79 occurs on the way to RHIC.
Initial commissioning of RHIC focussed on the magnet power supply control during
injection and acceleration. The two RHIC rings, labeled blue and yellow, are intersecting
at six interaction regions (IR), four of which are occupied by the collider experiments
BRAHMS, STAR, PHENIX and PHOBOS, respectively. To achieve the necessary flexi-
bility to adjust and optimize the collision rate at each interaction region of the two RHIC
rings a very large number of independently controllable power supplies were installed and
*Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy
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Roser, T. RHIC PERFORMANCE., article, January 14, 2001; Upton, New York. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc717060/m1/1/: accessed April 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.