Steel penetration in sand molds. Final technical report, September 1994--September 1997

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The research program was successful in identifying the major factoirs that influence penetration. This was done first through a case study of penetration samples. The study revealed that both chemical and mechanical penetration were present in carbon and high manganese steels. It also found that only mechanical penetration is found in stainless steel samples. It should be noted that when mechanical penetration does occur, there is a greater risk of chemical reactions with the mold. Therefore, it is common to confuse mechanical penetration with chemical. Sessile drop experiments were run to discover the effect of steel chemistry on the contact ... continued below

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74 p.

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Hayes, K.D.; Owens, M.; Barlow, J.; Stefanescu, D.M.; Lane, A.M. & Piwonka, T.S. December 1, 1997.

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Description

The research program was successful in identifying the major factoirs that influence penetration. This was done first through a case study of penetration samples. The study revealed that both chemical and mechanical penetration were present in carbon and high manganese steels. It also found that only mechanical penetration is found in stainless steel samples. It should be noted that when mechanical penetration does occur, there is a greater risk of chemical reactions with the mold. Therefore, it is common to confuse mechanical penetration with chemical. Sessile drop experiments were run to discover the effect of steel chemistry on the contact angle for different substrates. These experiments revealed the best substrates for each type of metal. Bauxite, magnesite, and mullite were discovered to be the best materials for resisting mechanical penetration. It was also shown that high manganese steels cannot be poured into silica molds and that stainless steel should not be poured in chromite molds. The sessile drop data was used to develop a mechanical penetration model which correctly predicted penetration in sixteen of twenty castings poured at the University of Alabama. Mold/metal atmosphere tests were run to understand the effects of the atmosphere on chemical penetration. It was found that the chemistry affecting penetration has its greatest effect as the casting is just poured. Chemical penetration for low carbon steels cannot be completely eliminated by adding carbon (seacoal) to green sand molds although a marked decrease is obtained in its severity. Extremely high carbon concentrations might be able to totally eliminate the penetration but are not used because of their possible diffusion into the steel causing carburization. A chemical penetration model was produced and its results agree well with the experimental results.

Physical Description

74 p.

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OSTI as DE98004027

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  • Other Information: PBD: 1 Dec 1997

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  • Other: DE98004027
  • Report No.: DOE/ID/13324--T1
  • Grant Number: FC07-94ID13324
  • DOI: 10.2172/661639 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 661639
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc712461

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  • December 1, 1997

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 12, 2015, 6:31 a.m.

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  • Jan. 12, 2018, 2:57 p.m.

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Hayes, K.D.; Owens, M.; Barlow, J.; Stefanescu, D.M.; Lane, A.M. & Piwonka, T.S. Steel penetration in sand molds. Final technical report, September 1994--September 1997, report, December 1, 1997; Tuscaloosa, Alabama. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc712461/: accessed December 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.