Trace water determination in gases by infrared spectroscopy Page: 1 of 9
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TRACE WATER DETERMINATION IN GASES
BY INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY
B. R. Stallard', L. H. Espinoza2, and T. M. Niemczyk2
'Sandia National Laboratories
Contamination Free Manufacturing Research Center
Albuquerque, NM 87185
2Department of Chemistry
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131
Brian R. Stallard is a Senior Member of the
Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories. He was
awarded degrees in physical chemistry from the
University of Calgary (B.Sc., 1976) and Cornell
University (Ph.D., 1982). His research is primarily in
the field of applied optical spectroscopy. Before arriving
at Sandia in 1988, Brian was employed at NIST and
Motorola. He has been a co-author on approximately 30
publications, presentations, and patents.
Luis H. Espinoza is a graduate student in the
Department of Chemistry at the University of New
Mexico. He holds degrees in chemistry from the
Catholic University in Lima Peru (B.Sc., 1986) and the
University of New Mexico (M.S., 1993). His Ph.D. work
is in the area of infrared spectroscopy.
Thomas M. Niemczyk is a Professor of Chemistry
at the University of New Mexico. His bachelors and
doctoral degrees are from the University of Wisconsin
(1969) and Michigan State University (1972),
respectively. He has worked in the general area of
analytical spectroscopy since joining the faculty at UNM
in 1973. He has been author or co-author on over 90
refereed articles and holds three patents.
Water determination in semiconductor process gases
is desirable in order to extend the life of gas delivery
systems and improve wafer yields. We review our work in
Copyright 1995 SEMATECH. Used with permission.
applying Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to this
problem, where a 10 ppb detection limit has been
demonstrated for water in N2, HCl, and HBr. The potential
for optical determination of other contaminants in these
gases is discussed. Also, alternative optical spectroscopic
approaches are briefly described. Finally, we discuss
methods for dealing with interference arising from water in
the instrument beam path, yet outside the sample cell.
Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy, Water,
Semiconductor gases, Gas purity, Nitrogen, Hydrogen
Chloride, Hydrogen Bromide.
Careful monitoring of the moisture in semiconductor
process gas lines can provide valuable information about
possible corrosion in the gas handling system and warn
of possible detrimental effects to the wafers in-process.
Presently there are several commercial instruments
costing $50K or less that are capable of detecting trace
water vapor as low as 50 ppb in N2."2 Two common
tools are the frost point detector and the solid-state
electrolytic detector. However, no single type of
instrument has achieved universal acceptance. In
particular, all presently available commercial
instruments have limited compatibility with corrosive
gases such as HCl and HBr. Recently, Fourier transform
infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been shown to be one
of the most sensitive methods available that is
compatible with corrosive gases.
A number of issues surrounding the use of FTIR
spectroscopy for water detection are discussed in the
references cited above. After reviewing our results with
FTIR spectroscopy, we address the following issues:
DIMIRMON OF THIS DOCUMfT 1 UtW
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Stallard, B.R.; Espinoza, L.H. & Niemczyk, T.M. Trace water determination in gases by infrared spectroscopy, report, May 1, 1995; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc711936/m1/1/: accessed January 21, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.