Exhaust aftertreatment using plasma-assisted catalysis

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In the field of catalysis, one application that has been classified as a breakthrough technology is the catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in oxygen-rich environments using hydrocarbons. This breakthrough will require dramatic improvements in both catalyst and engine technology, but the benefits will be substantial for energy efficiency and a cleaner environment. Engine and automobile companies are placing greater emphasis on the diesel engine because of its potential for saving fuel resources and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The modern direct-injection diesel engine offers demonstrated fuel economy advantages unmatched by any other commercially-viable engine. The main drawback of diesel engines is ... continued below

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Penetrante, B January 20, 2000.

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In the field of catalysis, one application that has been classified as a breakthrough technology is the catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in oxygen-rich environments using hydrocarbons. This breakthrough will require dramatic improvements in both catalyst and engine technology, but the benefits will be substantial for energy efficiency and a cleaner environment. Engine and automobile companies are placing greater emphasis on the diesel engine because of its potential for saving fuel resources and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The modern direct-injection diesel engine offers demonstrated fuel economy advantages unmatched by any other commercially-viable engine. The main drawback of diesel engines is exhaust emissions. A modification of existing oxidation catalyst/engine technology is being used to address the CO, hydrocarbon and particulates. However, no satisfactory solution currently exists for NO{sub x}. Diesel engines operate under net oxidizing conditions, thus rendering conventional three-way catalytic converters ineffective for the controlling the NO{sub x} emission. NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, using ammonia as a reductant, do exist for oxygen-rich exhausts; however, for transportation applications, the use of on-board hydrocarbon fuels is a more feasible, cost-effective, and environmentally-sound approach. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbons is one of the leading catalytic aftertreatment technologies for the reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-burn engine exhaust (often referred to as lean-NO{sub x}). The objective is to chemically reduce the pollutant molecules of NO{sub x} to benign molecules such as N{sub 2}. Aftertreatment schemes have focused a great deal on the reduction of NO because the NO{sub x} in engine exhaust is composed primarily of NO. Recent studies, however, have shown that the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} serves an important role in enhancing the efficiency for reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. It has become apparent that preconverting NO to NO{sub 2} could improve both the efficiency and durability of lean-NO{sub x} catalysts. A non-thermal plasma is an efficient means for selective partial oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The use of a non-thermal plasma in combination with a lean-NO{sub x} catalyst opens the opportunity for catalysts that are more efficient and more durable compared to conventional catalysts. In the absence of hydrocarbons, the O radicals will oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}, and the OH radicals will further oxidize NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. In plasma-assisted catalysis it is important that the plasma oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} without further producing acids.

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  • Clean Fuels 2000, San Diego, CA (US), 02/07/2000--02/09/2000

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  • Report No.: UCRL-JC-137288
  • Report No.: KC0302010
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-48
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 756802
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc710153

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • January 20, 2000

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  • Sept. 12, 2015, 6:31 a.m.

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  • Feb. 18, 2016, 5:01 p.m.

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Penetrante, B. Exhaust aftertreatment using plasma-assisted catalysis, article, January 20, 2000; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc710153/: accessed October 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.