Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks Page: 4 of 20
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production is associated with and proportional to growth (17). Cellulose production has been
demonstrated from glucose, sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol, arabitol, and many other substrates
(5,13,16,18). Excess glucose is oxidized to gluconate in wild-type A. xylinum, which lowers the pH and
inhibits cellulose production (13). Genetically altered strains with substantially reduced ability to form
gluconate have been developed (5). Methionine and lactate stimulate cell growth in the early stages,
allowing higher rates of cellulose production (19).
Low production rates and high medium costs limit commercial use of bacterial cellulose (3). We
report testing of unamended food process effluents, which typically represent economical and
environmental liabilities to the producers, as substrates for bacterial cellulose production in static culture.
Food process effluents. Potato effluents, cheese whey permeate (CW), and concentrated sugar beet
raffinate (CSB) were obtained from Idaho processing plants. Two potato process effluents were tested,
including high-solids (HS) and low-solids (LS) effluents. To lower carbohydrate concentrations to levels
similar to the control medium (described below), the effluents were diluted with distilled water. HS
effluent was diluted 1:10 by weight, while LS effluent, CW, and CSB were diluted 1:10 by volume.
Each diluted effluent was autoclaved at 121 C for 20 minutes, and the pH was adjusted to 5.0 with HCl
prior to use. Control experiments were conducted using an optimized glucose medium containing 20 g/L
glucose, 5 g/L yeast extract, 5 g/L peptone, 2.7 g/L Na2HPO4, and 1.15 g/L citrate, pH 5.0 (Schramm and
Hestrin's medium) (15,20). Initial carbohydrate data for the control and the diluted effluents are
presented in Table 1.
Cultures and Maintenance. Acetobacter xylinum 10821 and 23770 were obtained from the American
Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA). Several generations were grown in 25 g/L mannitol, 5
g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L peptone, pH 5.0 (21). Reference cultures were maintained at 4 C on malt
agar slants containing Schramm and Hestrin's medium (15,20) and 15 g/L agar (Difco), and were
subcultured monthly. Frozen seed stocks were prepared as follows. The cellulose pellicle was removed
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Thompson, D. N. & Hamilton, M. A. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks, article, May 7, 2000; Idaho Falls, Idaho. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc709339/m1/4/: accessed January 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.