Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

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Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead ... continued below

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17 p.

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Bogard, J. S.; Yuracko, K. L.; Lowden, R. A.; Murray, M. E. & Vaughn, N. L. November 1998.

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Description

Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

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17 p.

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OSTI as DE99000356

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  • 14. DOE pollution prevention conference, Seattle, WA (United States), 2-4 Jun 1998

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  • Other: DE99000356
  • Report No.: ORNL/CP--98264
  • Report No.: CONF-980654--
  • Grant Number: AC05-96OR22464
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 676993
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc708187

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • November 1998

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  • Sept. 12, 2015, 6:31 a.m.

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  • Nov. 18, 2015, 6:03 p.m.

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Bogard, J. S.; Yuracko, K. L.; Lowden, R. A.; Murray, M. E. & Vaughn, N. L. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets, article, November 1998; Tennessee. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc708187/: accessed April 26, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.