Laser demonstrations of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals Page: 4 of 8
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AE = 600 cm-
in the W-level and an acceptor ion in the
into the Y-level.
Z-level interacting to promote both ions
Five samples of varying Dy3+ concentration (0.35, 0.40, 0.43, 0.54, 0.73 x 1020 cm-3
respectively) were studied. Each of the two levels W and X was separately pumped with CW radiation
and the emission spectra recorded. Rate equations were solved for quantum efficiencies and branching
ratios which produced steady-state photon emission rates that matched the observed spectra. Intensity
calibration constants were eliminated by taking ratios of the individual spectra. Further details on these
measurements can be found in Ref. .
Results and analysis
Figure 2 shows emission spectra of a lower (0.35x 1020 cm~3) and a higher (0.54x 1020 cm~3) doped
sample, normalized to conserve total photons emitted. Notice the 2.9-gm peak in Figure 2a is more
prominent at higher doping, suggesting cross-relaxation. Indeed, self-consistent solutions were achieved
only with the inclusion of the cross-relaxation pathway depicted in Figure 1. The data, which fit well
with Burshtein's hopping mechanism of energy transfer, show that the cross-relaxation mechanism
accounts for a significant fraction of the total decay from the W level, thereby decreasing the radiative
efficiency from that level. Figure 2b shows emission data obtained from pumping the X level. The
quantum efficiency data for W, X and Y levels of Dy3+ are shown in Table 1.
1H9/2 Fun W
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Nostrand, M; Page, R; Payne, S; Schunemann, P & Isaenko, L. Laser demonstrations of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals, article, April 1, 2000; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc707992/m1/4/: accessed December 15, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.