Modeling electrodeposition for LIGA microdevice fabrication

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Description

To better understand and to help optimize the electroforming portion of the LIGA process, we have developed one and two-dimensional numerical models describing electrode-position of metal into high aspect-ratio molds. The one-dimensional model addresses dissociation, diffusion, electromigration, and deposition of multiple ion species. The two-dimensional model is limited to a single species, but includes transport induced by forced flow of electrolyte outside the mold and by buoyancy associated with metal ion depletion within the mold. To guide model development and to validate these models, we have also conducted a series of laboratory experiments using a sulfamate bath to deposit nickel ... continued below

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42 p.

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Griffiths, S.K.; Nilson, R.H. & Bradshaw, R.W. February 1, 1998.

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  • Sandia National Laboratories
    Publisher Info: Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
    Place of Publication: Albuquerque, New Mexico

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Description

To better understand and to help optimize the electroforming portion of the LIGA process, we have developed one and two-dimensional numerical models describing electrode-position of metal into high aspect-ratio molds. The one-dimensional model addresses dissociation, diffusion, electromigration, and deposition of multiple ion species. The two-dimensional model is limited to a single species, but includes transport induced by forced flow of electrolyte outside the mold and by buoyancy associated with metal ion depletion within the mold. To guide model development and to validate these models, we have also conducted a series of laboratory experiments using a sulfamate bath to deposit nickel in cylindrical molds having aspect ratios up to twenty-five. The experimental results indicate that current densities well in excess of the diffusion-limited currents may still yield metal deposits of acceptable morphology. However, the numerical models demonstrate that such large ion fluxes cannot be sustained by convection within the mold resulting from flow across the mold top. Instead, calculations suggest that the observed enhancement of transport probably results from natural convection within the molds, and that buoyancy-driven flows may be critical to metal ion transport even in micron-scale features having very large aspect ratios. Taking advantage of this enhanced ion transport may allow order-of-magnitude reductions in electroforming times for LIGA microdevice fabrication. 42 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Physical Description

42 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE98052594

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  • Other Information: PBD: Feb 1998

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  • Other: DE98052594
  • Report No.: SAND--98-8231
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • DOI: 10.2172/585034 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 585034
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc697663

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  • February 1, 1998

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Aug. 14, 2015, 8:43 a.m.

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  • April 14, 2016, 8:39 p.m.

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Griffiths, S.K.; Nilson, R.H. & Bradshaw, R.W. Modeling electrodeposition for LIGA microdevice fabrication, report, February 1, 1998; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc697663/: accessed November 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.