A survey of numerical methods for shock physics applications Page: 1 of 22
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9 7-/0 s-T
Submitted to the I -'
1997 International Workshop on
New Models and Numerical Codes for Shock Wave Processes in Condensed Media
September 15-19, 1997, Oxford, England
A SURVEY OF NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SHOCK PHYSICS APPLICATIONS
E. S. Hertel, Jr. RECEIVED
Sandia National Laboratories O 101997
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0819
Hydrocodes or more accurately, shock physics analysis packages, have been widely used in the
United States Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and elsewhere;around the world for over
30 years. Initial applications included weapons effects studies where the pressure levels were high
enough (substantially above the yield surface of representative materials) to disregard the material
strength, hence the term "hydrocode." Over the last 30 years, Sandia has worked extensively to
develop and apply advanced hydrocodes to armor/anti-armor interactions, warhead design, high
explosive initiation, and nuclear weapon safety issues.The needs of the DOE have changed over
the last 30 years, especially over the last decade.,A much stronger emphasis is currently placed on
the details of material deformation and high, explosive initiation phenomena. The hydrocodes of
30 years ago have now evolved into sophisticated analysis tools that can replace testing in some
situations and complement it in all situations.
A brief history of the development of hydrocodes in the United States will be given. I will also
discuss and compare the four principal methods in use today for the solution of the conservation
equations of mass, momentum, and energy for shock physics applications. The techniques dis-
cussed are the Eulerian methods currently employed by the Sandia multi-dimensional shock phys-
ics analysis package known as CTH; the element based Lagrangian method currently used by
codes like DYNA; the element free Lagrangian method (also know as smooth particle hydrody-
namics) used by codes like the Los Alamos code SPHINX; and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian
methods used by codes like the Lawrence Livermore code CALE or the Sandia code ALEGRA.
This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as supported by the U. S. Department
of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. The author also acknowledges the assistance of
three individuals, Leonard Wilson of the Navy Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, Dan
Carroll and Tim Trucano both of Sandia National Laboratories. Their contributions in running
some of the simulations that will be discussed here were appreciated.
Numerical simulations can offer a significant complement to experimental methods for studying
dynamic material behavior. For example, simulations allow non-intrusive investigation of material
response at interior points of a sample. No gauges, wires or other instrumentation are required to
extract the information on the state of the material. The response at any of the discrete points in a
numerical simulation can be monitored throughout the calculation simply by recording the mate-
rial state at each time step of the calculation. Arbitrarily fine resolution in space and time is possi-
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Hertel, E.S. Jr. A survey of numerical methods for shock physics applications, article, October 1, 1997; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc697116/m1/1/: accessed June 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.