Modeling of bubble dynamics in relation to medical applications Page: 3 of 16
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Modeling of bubble dynamics in relation to medical applications
P.A. Amendt, M. Strauss*, R.A. London, M.E. Glinsky, D.J. Maitland,
P.M. Celliers, S.R. Visuri, D.S. Bailey, D.A. Young, and D. Ho
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California,
Livermore, CA 94550
*University of California at Davis and Nuclear Research Center, Bar Sheva,
In various pulsed-laser medical applications, strong stress transients can be
generated in advance of vapor bubble formation. To better understand the
evolution of stress transients and subsequent formation of vapor bubbles,
two-dimensional simulations are presented in channel or cylindrical geome-
try with the LATIS (LAser TISsue) computer code. Differences with one-
dimensional modelling are explored, and simulated experimental conditions
for vapor bubble generation are presented and compared with data.
In many areas of pulsed-laser surgery, strong acoustic waves or shocks are ini-
tially generated which are followed by the formation of cavitation and vapor
bubbles.1 For example, laser-assisted coronary angioplasty is typically
accompanied by the formation of vapor bubbles due to selective absorption of
laser light by arterial thrombi.2,3 In the vascular system, use of laser-generated
bubbles is being considered as a possible means of disrupting an occlusion.4 In
the fields of opthalmology and dermatology, absorption of short-pulse laser
light by melanin structures can produce damaging vapor bubbles.-6 For
intraocular surgery, photodisruption of tissue is often accompanied by bubble
generation which must be kept safely away from the retina and corneal
In medical applications the range of bubble formation occurs over a wide
range of parameters. For example, the spatial dimensions of the irradiated
tissue can range from 1 pm to 1 mm. Pulse lengths between 1 ps and 1 ms are
available, and laser energies may range between 50 pJ and 100 mJ. The main
theoretical tool available to researchers are Rayleigh-type models of bubble
behavior which describe the evolution of the bubble radius R(t) versus time
t.8 These Rayleigh-type models include the Rayleigh-Plesset equation,
Gilmore equation, the Herring-Trilling equation, and the Kirkwood-Bethe
equation.8-11 All of these models implicit assume an initial low-density
gaseous state which, however, is not the case during initial bubble expansion
and latetime bubble collapse. At these instances, the density of the interior of
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Amendt, P.A.; London, R.A. & Strauss, M. Modeling of bubble dynamics in relation to medical applications, report, March 12, 1997; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc694349/m1/3/: accessed June 18, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.