Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

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Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic ... continued below

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100 p.

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Specht, W.L. & Harmon, S.M. September 1, 1997.

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This report is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 14 times . More information about this report can be viewed below.

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  • Specht, W.L. Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)
  • Harmon, S.M. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

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Description

Short-term whole effluent toxicity testing, which is currently a requirement of the U.S. EPA`s National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), commonly uses the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia. Despite the advantages to using a common test species to model the toxic effects of effluents, it could be argued that toxicity test results would be more meaningful if a wider variety of test organisms were commonly used. One particular argument against C. dubia is that tests conducted with this species do not always reflect local, site-specific conditions. The careful selection and use of an indigenous test species would produce a more realistic model of local instream effects and would account for regional differences in water quality. Permitted effluent discharges from Savannah River Site (SRS), a government weapons facility operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, require toxicity testing with C. dubia. However, water quality in these receiving streams is markedly different (lower pH and hardness) from standard laboratory water used for the culturing and testing of C. dubia, and it has been shown that this receiving water presents varying degrees of toxicity to C. dubia. Based on these results, it is possible that toxic effects observed during an effluent study could be the result of test organism stress from the dilution water and not the effects of SRS effluents. Therefore, this study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with an indigenous cladoceran species, Daphnia ambigua for routine regulatory testing at SRS. Given the indigenous nature of this species, combined with the fact that it has been successfully cultured by other investigators, D. ambigua was ideal for consideration as a replacement for C. dubia, but further study of the overall success and sensitivity of laboratory-reared D. ambigua was required. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods. Acute toxicity tests showed that when comparing LC50 values for C. dubia and D. ambigua, D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) while more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Results of chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in the same NOEC/LOEC values for both species. When exposed to unaltered SRS stream water, C. dubia demonstrated a `toxic` response for two of the three streams tested, while reproduction for D. ambigua was higher in all stream samples. Acute toxicity tests with sodium chloride in stream water, generally followed the sensitivity trend noted in tests conducted with regular laboratory water.

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100 p.

Notes

INIS; OSTI as DE98052898

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  • Other Information: PBD: Sep 1997

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  • Other: DE98052898
  • Report No.: WSRC-TR--97-00311
  • Grant Number: AC09-89SR18035
  • DOI: 10.2172/644634 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 644634
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc693340

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Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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Creation Date

  • September 1, 1997

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Aug. 14, 2015, 8:43 a.m.

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  • Feb. 9, 2016, 8:28 p.m.

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Specht, W.L. & Harmon, S.M. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site, report, September 1, 1997; Aiken, South Carolina. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc693340/: accessed April 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.