Manganese-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization Page: 3 of 13
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Manganese-Based Sorbents for Coal Gas Desulfurization
Lee D. Gasper-Galvin (LGASPE@METC.DOE.GOV; 304-285-4832)
Edward P. Fisher (EFISHE@METC.DOE.GOV; 304-285-4011)
Morgantown Energy Technology Center
William J. Goyette (410-789-8800, x167)
Manganese-based sorbents have previously been investigated for sulfur removal from coal
gases at high temperatures, e.g., 800 C (1,472 F) and above, and with simulated low-Btu
fuel gas or mixtures of H2S and H2 in N2 (Turkdogan and Olsson, 1978; Hepworth and
Slimane, 1994). The special emphasis on higher temperatures was because manganese oxide
is one of the few metal oxides that have stability and coal gas desulfurization potential at
Some studies have been performed at lower temperatures, e.g., 400 to 800 C (752 to
1,472 F) (Wakker and Gerritsen, 1990a, 1990b); these researchers showed that increasing H2
and CO increases the sulfur capacity of a sorbent containing Mn oxide and alumina, while
increasing H20 decreases the sulfur capacity. Thermodynamic studies (Westmoreland, et al.
1976) suggest that Mn-based sorbents may perform much better in the range of 400 to 800 0C
(752 to 1,472 F) than at higher temperatures. Hepworth and Slimane (1994) also showed a
graph of calculated equilibrium levels of H2S in the presence of temperatures from 700 to
1,200 0C (1,292 to 2,192 F) for different types of coal gas. The graph indicated that the
lowest equilibrium H2S levels were obtained in the presence of oxygen-blown Shell gas at the
lowest temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis studies by Westmoreland, et al. (1977)
showed that among sorbents consisting of the oxides of Mn, V, Ca, and Zn, the Mn oxide
showed the highest reaction rate over the temperature range 300 to 800 C (572 to 1,472 F).
Since overall sorbent performance is a combination of the effects of thermodynamics, kinetics,
and gas-solid mass transfer resistance, it seems reasonable from the information cited above
that an Mn-based sorbent would perform very well in a highly reducing Shell gas at lower
temperatures. The present study shows the effect of temperature, inlet H2S concentration, and
type of coal gas (air-blown KRW gas versus oxygen-blown Shell gas) on the performance of
Mn-based sorbent. The sorbent used for these studies was CST-939 from Chemetals (Balti-
more, Maryland). The CST-939 is a proprietary sorbent containing essentially 96 percent
MnO, and has previously been marketed as guard bed material for use downstream from
hydrodesulfurization units and upstream from reformers in petrochemical refining.
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Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Fisher, E.P. & Goyette, W.J. Manganese-based sorbents for coal gas desulfurization, report, December 31, 1996; Morgantown, West Virginia. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc687536/m1/3/: accessed August 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.