A review of ELMs in divertor tokamaks

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This paper reviews what is known about edge localized modes (ELMs), with an emphasis on their effect on the scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas. ELM effects have been measured in the ASDEX-U, C-Mod, COMPASS-D, DIII-D, JET, JFT-2M,JT-60U, and TCV tokamaks and are reported here. At least three types of ELMs have been identified and their salient features determined. Type-1 giant ELMs can cause the sudden loss of up to 10-15% of the plasma stored energy but their amplitude ({Delta}W/W) does not increase with increasing power. Type- 3 ELMs are observed near the H-mode power threshold and produce small energy dumps ... continued below

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52 p.

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Hill, D.N. May 23, 1996.

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Description

This paper reviews what is known about edge localized modes (ELMs), with an emphasis on their effect on the scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas. ELM effects have been measured in the ASDEX-U, C-Mod, COMPASS-D, DIII-D, JET, JFT-2M,JT-60U, and TCV tokamaks and are reported here. At least three types of ELMs have been identified and their salient features determined. Type-1 giant ELMs can cause the sudden loss of up to 10-15% of the plasma stored energy but their amplitude ({Delta}W/W) does not increase with increasing power. Type- 3 ELMs are observed near the H-mode power threshold and produce small energy dumps (1-3% of the stored energy). All ELMs increase the scrape- off layer plasma and produce particle fluxes on the divertor targets which are as much as ten times larger that the quiescent phase between ELMs. The divertor heat pulse is largest on the inner target, unlike that of L-Mode or quiescent H-mode; some tokamaks report radial structure in the heat flux profile which is suggestive of islands or helical structures. The power scaling of Type-1 ELM amplitude and frequency have been measured in several tokamaks and has recently been applied to predictions of the ELM Size in ITER. Concern over the expected ELM amplitude has led to a number of experiments aimed at demonstrating active control of ELMs. Impurity gas injection with feedback control on the radiation loss in ASDEX-U suggests that a promising mode of operation (the CDH-mode) with a very small type-3 ELMs can be maintained with heating power sell above the H-mode threshold, where giant type-1 ELMs can be maintained with heating power well above the H-mode threshold, where Giant type-1 ELMs are normally observed. While ELMs have many potential negative effects, the beneficial effect of ELMs in providing density control and limiting the core plasma impurity content in high confinement H- mode discharges should not be overlooked.

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52 p.

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INIS; OSTI as DE96050419

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  • 12. international conference on plasma surface interactions in controlled fusion devices, Saint-Raphael (France), 20-26 May 1996

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  • Other: DE96050419
  • Report No.: UCRL-JC--124081
  • Report No.: CONF-960569--11
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-48
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 377624
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc687512

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  • May 23, 1996

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  • July 25, 2015, 2:20 a.m.

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  • Feb. 17, 2016, 4 p.m.

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Hill, D.N. A review of ELMs in divertor tokamaks, article, May 23, 1996; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc687512/: accessed September 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.