Design diversity of HEVs with example vehicles from HEV competitions Page: 1 of 12
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Design Diversity of HEVs with Example Vehicles from HEV Competitions
M Duoba, R. Larsen, N. LeBlanc
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Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) can be designed and
operated to satisfy many different operational missions. The
three most common HEV types differ with respect to
component sizing and operational capabilities. However,
HEV technology offers design opportunities beyond these
three types. This paper presents a detailed HEV
categorization process that can be used to describe unique
HEV prototype designs entered in college and university-level
HEV design competitions. We explored possible energy
management strategies associated with designs that control the
utilization of the two on-board energy sources and use the
competition vehicles to illustrate various configurations and
designs that affect the vehicle's capabilities. Experimental
data is used to help describe the details of the power control
strategies which determine how the engine and electric motor
of HEV designs work together to provide motive power to the
In the past several years, researchers have increased the
level of detail used to describe the attributes and operational
characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the
literature. These improvements have been made by exploring
new designs in simulations and studying some limited HEV
prototype work. However, the common notions of HEV
technology are greatly simplified interpretations of a
technology that is still in its early stages of development.
Current HEV technology offers the vehicle designer many
new variables to consider in optimizing vehicle design.
Trade-offs in powertrain designs and energy storage
configurations do not lay in one-dimensional spectrums, but
can be two or three dimensional. In this environment,
designers must be very specific about their requirements
before they can begin to design and optimize an HEV.
An HEV design can satisfy very different types of
operational objectives. The design can offer a way to extend
the range of an electric vehicle, to directly replace a
conventional vehicle, or to blend of the attributes from either
type. Within each of these primary operational categories are
an infinite range of choices that relate to the hybrid
component sizing. Added to these choices are complex power
and energy control strategies that make the design and proper
characterization of an HEV a very involved process. This
paper will discuss these design choices in light of their ability
to achieve intended vehicle mission objectives.
DEFINITIONS AND COMMON TYPES OF HEVS
There are two fundamental configurations of hybrid
vehicles, series and parallel, that must be defined before we
discuss the details of HEV design. The series HEV uses the
electric motor as the sole source of motive power; the engine
is coupled to a generator to provide charge to the batteries
when desired. In a parallel HEV, both the engine and the
electric motor provide motive power to the wheels.
Typically HEV designs have been separated into different
types on the basis of their usage and operational capabilities.
Although only three types of HEVs are commonly identified,
the range of designs offer an unlimited number of potential
HEV configurations are possible; many of these may offer a
useful alternative to today's conventional vehicles. This
section describes the three common HEV types.
RANGE EXTENDER - The range-extender HEV overcomes
the limitations of current electric vehicle (EV) technology by
enabling the hybrid to drive beyond its electric-only range.
The range-extender hybrid is equipped with a large battery
pack and a small engine that provides supplemental power to
allow the vehicle to continue driving beyond the range of the
battery, but at a reduced average power level. The small
engine is packaged to allow the maximum utilization of the
vehicle for electric-powered operation. This design is most
con series EV configuration, with a small
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Duoba, M.; Larsen, R. & LeBlanc, N. Design diversity of HEVs with example vehicles from HEV competitions, article, December 31, 1996; Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc687488/m1/1/: accessed January 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.