Lean flammability limit as a fundamental refrigerant property: Phase 3. Final technical report, February 1997--February 1998

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Description

Alternative refrigerants are being developed by industry to prevent the further destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which had been the working fluids of choice for many air-conditioning and refrigeration machines. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are one class of compounds that are being pursued as replacements because their ozone depletion potential is zero. In general, the exchange of fluorine atoms on an HFC molecule with hydrogen atoms decreases its atmospheric lifetime, and it may also increase the efficiency of the working fluid. Both of these effects are highly desirable from environmental considerations since they act to mitigate global warming. Unfortunately, more ... continued below

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Medium: P; Size: 122 p.

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Grosshandler, W.; Donnelly, M. & Womeldorf, C. August 1, 1998.

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Description

Alternative refrigerants are being developed by industry to prevent the further destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which had been the working fluids of choice for many air-conditioning and refrigeration machines. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are one class of compounds that are being pursued as replacements because their ozone depletion potential is zero. In general, the exchange of fluorine atoms on an HFC molecule with hydrogen atoms decreases its atmospheric lifetime, and it may also increase the efficiency of the working fluid. Both of these effects are highly desirable from environmental considerations since they act to mitigate global warming. Unfortunately, more hydrogen on a HFC is usually associated with an increase in flammability. An accepted method for determining the flammability limits of gaseous fuels is ASTM Standard E 681. The minimum and maximum concentrations of the fuel in air for flame propagation are based upon the observed ignition and growth of a flame in a vessel filled with a quiescent fuel/air mixture. a Clear distinction is sought between a non-propagating flicker and a flame which has enough horizontal propagation to be hazardous. This report reviews the past work done on premixed, counter-flowing flames, describes the current counter-flow burner facility and operating procedures, presents the experimental results with the analysis that yields the above flammability limits, and recommends further activities that could lead to a science-based methodology for assessing the risk of fire from refrigeration machine working fluids. 30 figs.

Physical Description

Medium: P; Size: 122 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE99002118

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  • Other Information: PBD: Aug 1998

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  • Other: DE99002118
  • Report No.: DOE/CE/23810--98
  • Grant Number: FG02-91CE23810
  • DOI: 10.2172/329530 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 329530
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc685170

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • August 1, 1998

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • July 25, 2015, 2:20 a.m.

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  • Nov. 17, 2015, 6:06 p.m.

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Grosshandler, W.; Donnelly, M. & Womeldorf, C. Lean flammability limit as a fundamental refrigerant property: Phase 3. Final technical report, February 1997--February 1998, report, August 1, 1998; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc685170/: accessed December 12, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.