PIN diode array x-ray imaging. Final Technical report Page: 1 of 3
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Final Technical Report for Project Entitled
"PIN Diode Array X-Ray Imaging" (DE-AS08-87DP10685)
Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley
We have completed the construction of an X-ray camera based on a solid state imaging device
and have obtained images of Omega laser targets. The new project is an evolution of a prior successs-
ful NLUF project (contract DE-AS08-85NV10507) based a smaller 10 X 64 Ge diode array. The new
project is based on a Silicon, (Si), PIN diode array. The assembly is mounted in a cryogenically
cooled, vacuum housing. Each Si diode has near quantum X-ray detection efficiency between 1-10 keV
and a daamic range of 103 in this energy band. The main objective of the project was to continue the
investigation into the practical use of a PIN diode array readout device as a method of obtaining images
of 1 to 20 keV X-ray emission from laser targets. The experiment has successfully demonstrated the
feasibility of using a PIN array detector as a means of obtaining hard X-ray images in the high powered
laser environment. We also demonstrated the capability of the detector to obtain real time images of
the X-ray emission from laser targets. (F.J. Marshall, J.G. Jernigan, J.F. Arens, T. Collins, and G. Pien,
A PIN diode array was selected as the detector because of its broad range of X-ray sensitivity and
history of successful use in discrete form in laser fusion research. The detector, developed at the
Carlsbad Research Facility of the Hughes Aircraft Company, consists of a Silicon (Si) PIN diode array
which is bump bonded to a single solid state device which contains an array of 256 x 256 ultra low-
noise readout amplifiers. Each PIN diode has near quantum efficiency over the entire energy range 1 to
20 keV. This efficiency at the highest energies is a major advantage of PIN diode detectors over CCDs.
As such it is the most sensitive instrument in this full energy range. The particular array used for these
experiments has pixels of 30 m size. With magnification, X-radiation from laser plasma targets can be
spatially resolved to 6 microns.
The instrumentation which is required to operate the PIN camera on the Omega target chamber
consists of a pinhole camera assembly, cryogenic cooling supply and readout electronics. The PIN diode
assembly is contained in a vacuum housing which is attached to the exterior of a pinhole camera sup-
port via a gate valve connection. A supply line runs from the main chamber liquid nitrogen tank to the
detector housing enabling operation at cryogenic temperatures. A shielded cable runs from the detector
to an electronics rack which is shielded from electromagnetic interference (EMI). The EMI rack con-
tains the electronics which converts the analog readout signals into digital form. The digital informa-
tion is subsequently transferred to a computer workstation where it is displayed in image form and
stored as a binary file. A thin piece, (25 m), of tantalum, into which has been placed an array of
pinholes, is positioned between the target and the detector completing the X-ray camera.
We have demonstrated the capability to make instantaneous X-ray images of laser targets in the
interactive work environment of a high power, high repetition rate (~1/2hr), laser such as the Omega
UV system. With this hybrid device, real time evaluation of X-ray images is possible. Quantitative
real time X-ray imaging will also aid in the detailed analysis of laser target X-ray emission.
This project was carried out by the principal investigator Dr. Garrett Jernigan of the Space Sci-
ences Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley California and co-experimenter Dr. Frederic
J. Marshall of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The results from the
successful use of the X-ray camera are presented in a publication (Marshall et.al. 1992). A copy of this
publication is attached as part of this report.
DI -N OF A DOC M STER
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Jernigan, J.G. PIN diode array x-ray imaging. Final Technical report, report, September 1, 1996; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc677161/m1/1/: accessed September 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.