Synthesis and properties of bulk metallic glasses in Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloys Page: 4 of 8
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SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF BULK METALLIC
GLASSES IN Pd-Ni-P AND Pd-Cu-P ALLOYS
Y. HE and R. B. SCHWARZ
Center for Materials Science, MS K-765, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM
87545, U. S. A.
Bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloy rods with diameters ranging from 7 to 25
mm have been synthesized over a wide composition range using a fluxing technique. For most
bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P alloys, the difference AT= Tx - Tg between the crystallization
temperature Tx and the glass transition temperature Tg is larger than 90 K, while for bulk
amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys, AT varies from 27 to 73 K. Pd4oNi40P20 has the highest glass
formability, and 300-gram bulk amorphous cylinders, 25 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length,
can be easily produced. This size, however, is not an upper limit. The paper presents the glass
formation ranges for both ternary alloy systems and data on the thermal stability of the
amorphous alloys, as well as their specific heat, density, and elastic properties.
Bulk glass formation in metallic systems is usually difficult. Unlike traditional oxide
glasses which can be easily formed using low cooling rates, metallic glasses can, in general, only
be formed using high cooling rates. This is because undercooled metallic melts have high atomic
mobility and thus cooling rates on the order of 106 K/sec are needed to prevent the melt from
crystallizing while it is cooled from its melting temperature, Tm, to the glass transition
temperature, Tg. Recently, a number of multicomponent metallic alloy systems have been found
to have extraordinary glass forming ability. These alloy systems include La-Al-(Ni,Cu) , Mg-
(Cu,Ni)-Y , Zr-Al-(Cu,Ni,Co) [3,4], Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be , Nd-Al-(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe) , and Ti-Zr-
Ni-Cu . Most of these alloys can be quenched from the melt into a bulk amorphous state at a
relative cooling rate of 1~100 K/sec. By bulk we mean a sample with minimum dimensions of
about 1 mm. Because bulk amorphous alloys have large technological potential, understanding
"their synthesis and finding new compositions are topics of great scientific interest.
Pd4oNi40P20 was one of the first bulk amorphous alloys discovered. By quenching the
melt in water, Chen produced amorphous Pd4oNi4oP20 alloy rods with diameters of 1-3 mm .
Using surface etching and thermal cycling to eliminate the surface impurities, Drehman et al. 
successfully produced amorphous Pd40Ni40P20 solids with minor diameters up to 5.3 mm; and by
fluxing molten Pd40Ni40P20 with dehydrated B203, Kui et al.  were able to prepare
amorphous Pd4oNi40P20 buttons with the minimum dimension of about 10 mm. These previous
studies have concentrated on the particular composition of Pd4oNi40P20. In recent publications,
we reported the homogeneity range for bulk glass formation in the Pd-Ni-P system [11,12]. In
this paper we report a new ternary bulk glass forming system, Pd-Cu-P. The properties of bulk
Pd-Cu-P and Pd-Ni-P glasses are compared and discussed.
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He, Y. & Schwarz, R.B. Synthesis and properties of bulk metallic glasses in Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloys, article, November 1, 1996; New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc676608/m1/4/: accessed January 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.