Optical constants of materials in the EUV/soft x-ray region for multilayer mirror applications

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The response of a given material to an incident electromagnetic wave is described by the energy dependent complex index of refraction n = 1 {minus} {delta} + i{beta}. In the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft x-ray spectral region, the need for accurate determination of n is driven by activity in areas such as synchrotron based research, EUV/x-ray lithography, x-ray astronomy and plasma applications. Knowledge of the refractive index is essential for the design of the optical components of instruments used in experiments and applications. Moreover, measured values of n may be used to evaluate solid state models for the optical behavior of ... continued below

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128 p.

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Soufli, R. December 1, 1997.

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  • Soufli, R. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

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The response of a given material to an incident electromagnetic wave is described by the energy dependent complex index of refraction n = 1 {minus} {delta} + i{beta}. In the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft x-ray spectral region, the need for accurate determination of n is driven by activity in areas such as synchrotron based research, EUV/x-ray lithography, x-ray astronomy and plasma applications. Knowledge of the refractive index is essential for the design of the optical components of instruments used in experiments and applications. Moreover, measured values of n may be used to evaluate solid state models for the optical behavior of materials. The refractive index n of Si, Mo and Be is investigated in the EUV/soft x-ray region. In the case of Si, angle dependent reflectance measurements are performed in the energy range 50--180 eV. The optical constants {delta}, {beta} are both determined by fitting to the Fresnel equations. The results of this method are compared to the values in the 1993 atomic tables. Photoabsorption measurements for the optical constants of Mo are performed on C/Mo/C foils, in the energy range 60--930 eV. Photoabsorption measurements on Be thin films supported on silicon nitride membranes are performed, and the results are applied in the determination of the absorption coefficient of Be in the energy region 111.5--250 eV. The new results for Si and Mo are applied to the calculation of normal incidence reflectivities of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer mirrors. These calculations show the importance of accurate knowledge of {delta} and {beta} in the prediction and modeling of the performance of multilayer optics.

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128 p.

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OSTI as DE98052324

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  • Other Information: TH: Thesis (Ph.D.)

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  • Other: DE98052324
  • Report No.: LBNL--41258
  • Grant Number: AC03-76SF00098
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 292896
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc676123

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

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  • December 1, 1997

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  • July 25, 2015, 2:20 a.m.

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  • Aug. 4, 2016, 7:04 p.m.

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Soufli, R. Optical constants of materials in the EUV/soft x-ray region for multilayer mirror applications, thesis or dissertation, December 1, 1997; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc676123/: accessed December 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.