An investigation of penetrant techniques for detection of machining-induced surface-breaking cracks on monolithic ceramics

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The purpose of this effort was to evaluate penetrant methods for their ability to detect surface-breaking cracks in monolithic ceramic materials with an emphasis on detection of cracks generated by machining. There are two basic penetrant types, visible and fluorescent. The visible penetrant method is usually augmented by powder developers and cracks detected can be seen in visible light. Cracks detected by fluorescent penetrant are visible only under ultraviolet light used with or without a developer. The developer is basically a powder that wicks up penetrant from a crack to make it more observable. Although fluorescent penetrants were recommended in ... continued below

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82 p.

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Forster, G. A. & Ellingson, W. A. February 1996.

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Description

The purpose of this effort was to evaluate penetrant methods for their ability to detect surface-breaking cracks in monolithic ceramic materials with an emphasis on detection of cracks generated by machining. There are two basic penetrant types, visible and fluorescent. The visible penetrant method is usually augmented by powder developers and cracks detected can be seen in visible light. Cracks detected by fluorescent penetrant are visible only under ultraviolet light used with or without a developer. The developer is basically a powder that wicks up penetrant from a crack to make it more observable. Although fluorescent penetrants were recommended in the literature survey conducted early in this effort, visible penetrants and two non-standard techniques, a capillary gaseous diffusion method under development at the institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow, and the {open_quotes}statiflux{close_quotes} method which involves use of electrically charged particles, were also investigated. SiAlON ring specimens (1 in. diameter, 3/4 in. wide) which had been subjected to different thermal-shock cycles were used for these tests. The capillary gaseous diffusion method is based on ammonia; the detector is a specially impregnated paper much like litmus paper. As expected, visible dye penetrants offered no detection sensitivity for tight, surface-breaking cracks in ceramics. Although the non-standard statiflux method showed promise on high-crack-density specimens, it was ineffective on limited-crack-density specimens. The fluorescent penetrant method was superior for surface-breaking crack detection, but successful application of this procedure depends greatly on the skill of the user. Two presently available high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrants were then evaluated for detection of microcracks on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC from different suppliers. Although 50X optical magnification may be sufficient for many applications, 200X magnification provides excellent delectability.

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82 p.

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OSTI as DE96015151

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  • Other Information: PBD: Feb 1996

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  • Other: DE96015151
  • Report No.: ORNL/Sub--93-SN893/1
  • Grant Number: AC05-96OR22464
  • DOI: 10.2172/374163 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 374163
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc675988

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  • February 1996

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  • July 25, 2015, 2:20 a.m.

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  • Dec. 16, 2015, 6:48 p.m.

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Forster, G. A. & Ellingson, W. A. An investigation of penetrant techniques for detection of machining-induced surface-breaking cracks on monolithic ceramics, report, February 1996; Tennessee. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc675988/: accessed September 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.