The effect of aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels

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The effect of elevated temperature aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels is discussed in terms of the several parameters which influence such behavior. These parameters include water chemistry, impurities within the steels themselves, as well as factors such as the water flow rate, loading waveform and loading rates. Some of these parameters have similar effects upon both crack initiation and propagation, while others exhibit different effects in the two stages of cracking. In the case of environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth, the most important impurities within the steel are metallurgical sulfide inclusions which dissolve ... continued below

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34 p.

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James, L.A. & Van Der Sluys, W.A. January 1, 1996.

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  • James, L.A. Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States). Bettis Atomic Power Lab.
  • Van Der Sluys, W.A. Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

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Description

The effect of elevated temperature aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels is discussed in terms of the several parameters which influence such behavior. These parameters include water chemistry, impurities within the steels themselves, as well as factors such as the water flow rate, loading waveform and loading rates. Some of these parameters have similar effects upon both crack initiation and propagation, while others exhibit different effects in the two stages of cracking. In the case of environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth, the most important impurities within the steel are metallurgical sulfide inclusions which dissolve upon contact with the water. A ``critical`` concentration of sulfide ions at the crack tip can then induce environmentally-assisted cracking which proceeds at significantly increased crack growth rates over those observed in air. The occurrence, or non-occurrence, of EAC is governed by the mass-transport of sulfide ions to and from the crack-tip region, and the mass-transport is discussed in terms of diffusion, ion migration, and convection induced within the crack enclave. Examples are given of convective mass-transport within the crack enclave resulting from external free stream flow. The initiation of fatigue cracks in elevated temperature aqueous environments, as measured by the S-N fatigue lifetimes, is also strongly influenced by the parameters identified above. The influence of sulfide inclusions does not appear to be as strong on the crack initiation process as it is on crack propagation. The oxygen content of the environment appears to be the dominant factor, although loading frequency (strain rate) and temperature are also important factors.

Physical Description

34 p.

Notes

INIS; OSTI as DE96004655

Source

  • National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) annual corrosion conference and exposition: water and waste water industries, Denver, CO (United States), 24-29 Mar 1996

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  • Other: DE96004655
  • Report No.: WAPD-T--3078
  • Report No.: CONF-960389--1
  • Grant Number: AC11-93PN38195
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 197144
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc672399

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • January 1, 1996

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

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  • Nov. 30, 2015, 7:50 p.m.

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James, L.A. & Van Der Sluys, W.A. The effect of aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels, article, January 1, 1996; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc672399/: accessed April 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.