Calibration of an explosives vapor generator based on vapor diffusion from a condensed phase

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Development of a vapor generator for consistently producing accurate amounts of vapor from low vapor pressure explosive materials is a pressing need within the explosives detection community. Of particular importance for reproducibility and widespread acceptance of results is the correlation of such a vapor generator to a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass standard. This paper describes an explosives vapor generator recently developed at Varian in which a solid explosive sample in a precision bore glass tube is put in an oven at constant temperature, and vapor diff-using from the top of the tube is entrained in a ... continued below

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30 p.

Creation Information

Parmeter, J.E.; Rhykerd, L. Jr.; Conrad, F.J.; Tiano, G.S.; Preston, D.; Eiceman, G.A. et al. December 31, 1995.

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  • Sandia National Laboratories
    Publisher Info: Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
    Place of Publication: Albuquerque, New Mexico

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Description

Development of a vapor generator for consistently producing accurate amounts of vapor from low vapor pressure explosive materials is a pressing need within the explosives detection community. Of particular importance for reproducibility and widespread acceptance of results is the correlation of such a vapor generator to a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass standard. This paper describes an explosives vapor generator recently developed at Varian in which a solid explosive sample in a precision bore glass tube is put in an oven at constant temperature, and vapor diff-using from the top of the tube is entrained in a carrier gas flow. The rate of vapor output is thus dependent on both the equilibrium vapor pressure of the solid at oven temperature and the rate of diffusion up the length of the tube. Correlation to a NIST mass standard is achieved by periodic weighing of the sample tube on a microbalance. We report results obtained with the explosives TNT and RDX. Results for TNT show that the mass output rate is constant over hundreds of hours of continuous use, with outputs of {approximately} 10--2000 pg/sec for oven temperatures in the range of 60--120{degrees}C. Both the mass loss experiments and calibration with an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) give a TNT mass output value of 85 pg/sec at 79{degrees}C, and this result is supported by transport theory calculations. Mass loss curves for RDX are also linear with time, and show the expected exponential increase of mass output with oven temperature.

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30 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE96004307

Source

  • 5. international symposium on analysis and detection of explosives, Chantilly, VA (United States), 4-8 Dec 1995

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  • Other: DE96004307
  • Report No.: SAND--95-2724C
  • Report No.: CONF-951263--1
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 195758
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc671129

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  • December 31, 1995

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

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  • June 23, 2016, 1:23 p.m.

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Parmeter, J.E.; Rhykerd, L. Jr.; Conrad, F.J.; Tiano, G.S.; Preston, D.; Eiceman, G.A. et al. Calibration of an explosives vapor generator based on vapor diffusion from a condensed phase, article, December 31, 1995; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc671129/: accessed October 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.