Effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates from long-lived radionuclides at U. S. Pacific Test Site

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Description

The United States conducted a series of nuclear tests from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini, a coral atoll, in the Marshall Islands (MI). The aquatic and terrestrial environments of the atoll are still contaminated with several long-lived radionuclides that were generated during testing. The four major radionuclides found in terrestrial plants and soils are Cesium-137 ({sup 137} Cs), Strontium-90 ({sup 90} Sr), Plutonium-239+ 240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). {sup 137}Cs in the coral soils is more available for uptake by plants than {sup 137}Cs associated with continental soils of North America or Europe. Soil-to-plant {sup 137}Cs median concentration ... continued below

Physical Description

162 Kilobytes pages

Creation Information

Conrado, C.L.; Hamilton, T.F.; Robison, W.L. & Stoker, A.C. September 1, 1998.

Context

This article is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this article can be viewed below.

Who

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this article or its content.

Sponsor

Publisher

Provided By

UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serving as both a federal and a state depository library, the UNT Libraries Government Documents Department maintains millions of items in a variety of formats. The department is a member of the FDLP Content Partnerships Program and an Affiliated Archive of the National Archives.

Contact Us

What

Descriptive information to help identify this article. Follow the links below to find similar items on the Digital Library.

Description

The United States conducted a series of nuclear tests from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini, a coral atoll, in the Marshall Islands (MI). The aquatic and terrestrial environments of the atoll are still contaminated with several long-lived radionuclides that were generated during testing. The four major radionuclides found in terrestrial plants and soils are Cesium-137 ({sup 137} Cs), Strontium-90 ({sup 90} Sr), Plutonium-239+ 240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). {sup 137}Cs in the coral soils is more available for uptake by plants than {sup 137}Cs associated with continental soils of North America or Europe. Soil-to-plant {sup 137}Cs median concentration ratios (CR) (kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight plant/kBq kg {sup {minus}1} dry weight soil) for tropical fruits and vegetables range between 0.8 and 36, much larger than the range of 0.005 to 0.5 reported for vegetation in temperate zones. Conversely, {sup 90}Sr median CRs range from 0.006 to 1.0 at the atoll versus a range from 0.02 to 3.0 for continental silica-based soils. Thus, the relative uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by plants in carbonate soils is reversed from that observed in silica-based soils. The CRs for {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are very similar to those observed in continental soils. Values range from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}4} for both {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. No significant difference is observed between the two in coral soil. The uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants is enhanced because of the absence of mineral binding sites and the low concentration of potassium in the coral soil. {sup 137}Cs is bound to the organic fraction of the soil, whereas {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are primarily bound to soil particles. Assessment of plant uptake for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr into locally grown food crops was a major contributing factor in (1) reliably predicting the radiological dose for returning residents, and (2) developing a strategy to limit the availability and uptake of {sup 137}Cs into locally g

Physical Description

162 Kilobytes pages

Source

  • Low Level Measurements of Actinides and Long-Lived Radionuclides in Biological and Environmental Samples, Salt Lake City, UT (US), 09/21/1998--09/25/1998

Language

Item Type

Identifier

Unique identifying numbers for this article in the Digital Library or other systems.

  • Report No.: UCRL-JC-130231
  • Report No.: HD2006400
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-48
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 2858
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc670904

Collections

This article is part of the following collection of related materials.

Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

What responsibilities do I have when using this article?

When

Dates and time periods associated with this article.

Creation Date

  • September 1, 1998

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

Description Last Updated

  • Aug. 8, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

Usage Statistics

When was this article last used?

Yesterday: 0
Past 30 days: 0
Total Uses: 4

Interact With This Article

Here are some suggestions for what to do next.

Start Reading

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Citations, Rights, Re-Use

Conrado, C.L.; Hamilton, T.F.; Robison, W.L. & Stoker, A.C. Effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates from long-lived radionuclides at U. S. Pacific Test Site, article, September 1, 1998; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc670904/: accessed September 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.