A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle

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In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable ... continued below

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4 p.

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Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D. & Aceves, S. October 3, 1995.

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Description

In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable batteries (ZARBs) and electromechanical batteries (EMBs, i. e., flywheels) to develop a ZEV with a 384 kilometer (240 mile) urban range. This vehicle uses a 40 kW, 70 kWh ZARB for energy storage combined with a 102 kW, 0.5 kWh EMB for power peaking. These technologies are sufficiently near-term and cost-effective to plausibly be in production by the 1999-2001 time frame for stationary and initial vehicular applications. Unlike many other ZEVs currently being developed by industry, our proposed ZEV has range, acceleration, and size consistent with larger conventional passenger vehicles available today. Our life-cycle cost projections for this technology are lower than for Pb-acid battery ZEVs. We have used our Hybrid Vehicle Evaluation Code (HVEC) to simulate the performance of the vehicle and to size the various components. The use of conservative subsystem performance parameters and the resulting vehicle performance are discussed in detail.

Physical Description

4 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE96003167

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  • 7. annual NESEA sustainable transportation and solar and electric vehicle symposium, Providence, RI (United States), 13-15 Nov 1995

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  • Other: DE96003167
  • Report No.: UCRL-JC--121727
  • Report No.: CONF-951160--1
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-48
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 207450
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc670306

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  • October 3, 1995

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

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  • Feb. 18, 2016, 11:26 a.m.

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Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D. & Aceves, S. A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle, article, October 3, 1995; California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc670306/: accessed September 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.