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Integrated Environmental, Health and Safety Management:
The Outcome of The "Necessary and Sufficient Process"
A. O. Bendure and S. A. Walker
Sandia National Laboratories
Dept. 7315, MS 1037
PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1037
This paper presents a paradigm for integrating the many facets of ES&H management based on the necessary
and sufficient control of hazards and the resulting risks through a systems approach. The paradigm answers the
question "What is the best approach to managing ES&H to increase value, reduce risk, improve satisfaction?".
Success in managing ES&H ultimately depends on the value perceived by activity and operations "owners",
who are also hazard owners, in identifying and managing the risks to people, property, performance, and the
environment from their activities and operations. If the owner perceives that the process of identifying and
managing ES&H risk directly contributes to doing the job better, faster, and cheaper, as well as safer, the process
will be valued. Conversely, if the process imposes additional requirements or constraints which are perceived to
reduce performance, adversely impact schedules, or cause higher cost, the process will not be valued.
The "Necessary and Sufficient" criteria provide a basis for an integrated approach to ES&H management
focused on identifying and managing risks intrinsic to operations and activities. It provides a framework for using
"off-the shelf' (standard) or "tailored" (specialized) approaches to managing risk in addition to the usual "one size
fits all" approach. Characterizing hazards and risks against standards applicable to industrial/commercial
activities results in two broad risk classes: those risks commonly found in industry and, those risks not commonly
found in industry (Figure 1). These two classes of risks should be managed differently. Risks common to industry
can be managed using generic methods. For example, an acceptable level of risk would be achieved by operating
equipment according to the manufacturer's instructions, or by using chemicals according to the precautions stated
in the Material Safety Data Sheet (one size fits all), or by following corporate/generic risk mitigation processes
scaled to the hazard (off-the shelf). Operations using Standard Industrial Hazards such as compressed gases,
lasers, confined spaces, or high voltage would be conducted according to "Safe Operating Procedures" (SOPs)
which would be provided as a compendium to risk owners. The SOPs would be incorporated into line operating
procedures by simple reference.
For non-common hazards, the detail of the required safety analysis is based on the severity of likely
consequences. For example, "low-consequence" hazards would require a simple analysis of the consequences, the
events which could produce the consequences, and identification of the methods used to obtain an acceptable level
of risk. Moderate-consequence hazards would require a more detailed qualitative risk assessment and risk
management plan; high-consequence hazards would require a detailed quantitative risk assessment and detailed
risk management plan.
Figure 2 shows the "Necessary and Sufficient Hazard Management Process". This process is "Necessary and
Sufficient" because risk management beyond standard industrial practice is only imposed if warranted by the risk
resulting from the hazard. The process begins with identifying the Type, Form, and Quantity of each hazard
inherent in a proposed activity, operation, or facility. A preliminary hazard screen (PHS) is performed on the
identified hazards to separate them into the two broad categories of "Standard Industrial Hazard" and "Non-
Standard Industrial Hazard".
Hazard identification is the foundation oflntegrated ES&HManagement because unidentified hazards may
result in unacceptable risks. Hazards also define the input parameters for the system by scoping requirements to
protect people, property, performance, and the environment.
Knowledge of risk is essential to the necessary and sufficient management of risk "Risk" is the qualitative
or quantitative expression of possible harm that considers both the likelihood that a hazard will result in harm, and
This work was supported by the United
States Department of Energy under
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Bendure, A.O. & Walker, S.A. Integrated environmental, health and safety management; The outcome of the `Necessary and Sufficient Process`, report, May 1, 1996; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc669069/m1/1/: accessed January 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.