Ammonia usage in vapor compression for refrigeration and air-conditioning in the United States

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The impending phaseout of CFCs and HCFCs has led to a worldwide search for refrigerants that can provide equivalent performance while not damaging the environment. Long used as a working fluid in industrial and large-scale refrigeration, ammonia provides high efficiency, low initial cost, and no detrimental impact to the environment. However, its toxicity and flammability, along with technical considerations and increased operating costs, deter its use in many refrigeration and cooling applications. Utilization of ammonia in applications where its safety considerations and technical concerns can be addressed provides the best growth opportunity for adoption as a replacement refrigerant. Applications such ... continued below

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15 p.

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Fairchild, P.D. & Baxter, V.D. December 31, 1995.

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Description

The impending phaseout of CFCs and HCFCs has led to a worldwide search for refrigerants that can provide equivalent performance while not damaging the environment. Long used as a working fluid in industrial and large-scale refrigeration, ammonia provides high efficiency, low initial cost, and no detrimental impact to the environment. However, its toxicity and flammability, along with technical considerations and increased operating costs, deter its use in many refrigeration and cooling applications. Utilization of ammonia in applications where its safety considerations and technical concerns can be addressed provides the best growth opportunity for adoption as a replacement refrigerant. Applications such as district or large-scale cooling, thermal storage, packaged systems, and combined systems hold promise for increased usage of ammonia. Ongoing research and development are providing solutions to technical considerations, and innovations in safety and containment of ammonia are addressing those particular concerns, but code restrictions and regulations present the greatest barrier to wider adoption of ammonia as an alternate refrigerant in the US To encourage wider use, future efforts will need to continue on improved safety and more efficient design, along with an increased emphasis on educating and informing industry and the public about the advantages ammonia and the factors restricting its use.

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15 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE96005477

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  • 22. International Energy Agency (IEA) annex workshop on compression systems with natural working fluids applications, Trondheim (Norway), 16-17 Oct 1995

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  • Other: DE96005477
  • Report No.: CONF-9510325--1
  • Grant Number: AC05-84OR21400
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 208395
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc668690

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • December 31, 1995

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

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  • Jan. 15, 2016, 12:42 p.m.

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Fairchild, P.D. & Baxter, V.D. Ammonia usage in vapor compression for refrigeration and air-conditioning in the United States, article, December 31, 1995; Tennessee. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc668690/: accessed June 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.