Device for calibrating a radiation detector system Page: 4 of 23
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on the energy, activity and half-life of the particular
radionuclide, the chemical properties of the radionuclide, the
organs that accumulate the radionuclide (lungs, thyroid,
kidneys, etc.), and the mode of intake (oral, by inhalation, or by
5 a wound). The Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) by inhalation is
lowest for Class Y materials (radionuclides with half-lives
measured in years), and higher for Class W and Class D
materials (half-lives measured in weeks and days, respectively).
By way of example, the ALIs for 234Th and 235U, both Class W
10 materials, are 190 pCi (7.0 MBq) and 810 nCi (30,000 Bq),
respectively. Data on ALIs are found in the International
Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30,
"Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers"; these data
are incorporated herein by reference.
15 Current regulations mandate routine exposure monitoring
and regular bioassays for all personnel who may be exposed to
transuranic materials. Typically, workers carry personal
radiation dosimeters such as thermoluminescent dosimeters
(TLDs) to record their total external exposure during a given
20 time period, and work areas are furnished with detectors and
alarms to monitor ambient radiation levels and warn of
potentially-hazardous conditions. Work time in high-radiation
areas is limited, sometimes to no more than a few minutes, to
limit total exposure to permissible levels. Protective clothing
25 and equipment may be required for persons working with
radionuclides or in high-radiation areas.
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McFee, M. C.; Kirkham, T. J. & Johnson, T. H. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system, text, September 23, 1993; Aiken, South Carolina. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc668188/m1/4/: accessed January 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.