Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management

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Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. ... continued below

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6 p.

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Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J & Michaels, K F January 1, 1995.

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Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

Physical Description

6 p.

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OSTI as DE95000256

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  • Society of Automotive Engineers international congress and exposition, Detroit, MI (United States), 27 Feb - 2 Mar 1995

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  • Other: DE95000256
  • Report No.: NREL/TP--473-7025
  • Report No.: CONF-950256--3
  • Grant Number: AC36-83CH10093
  • DOI: 10.4271/950409 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 27052
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc667865

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  • January 1, 1995

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  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

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  • March 31, 2016, 4:19 p.m.

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Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J & Michaels, K F. Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management, article, January 1, 1995; Golden, Colorado. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc667865/: accessed October 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.