Evaluation of the potential for significant ammonia releases from Hanford waste tanks

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Description

Ammonia is ubiquitous as a component of the waste stored in the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). Because ammonia is both flammable and toxic, concerns have been raised about the amount of ammonia stored in the tanks and the possible mechanisms by which it could be released from the waste into the head space inside the tanks as well as into the surrounding atmosphere. Ammonia is a safety issue for three reasons. As already mentioned, ammonia is a flammable gas and may contribute to a flammability hazard either directly, if it reaches a high enough concentration ... continued below

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148 p.

Creation Information

Palmer, B.J.; Anderson, C.M.; Chen, G.; Cuta, J.M.; Ferryman, T.A. & Terrones, G. July 1, 1996.

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  • Pacific Northwest Laboratory
    Publisher Info: Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
    Place of Publication: Richland, Washington

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Description

Ammonia is ubiquitous as a component of the waste stored in the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). Because ammonia is both flammable and toxic, concerns have been raised about the amount of ammonia stored in the tanks and the possible mechanisms by which it could be released from the waste into the head space inside the tanks as well as into the surrounding atmosphere. Ammonia is a safety issue for three reasons. As already mentioned, ammonia is a flammable gas and may contribute to a flammability hazard either directly, if it reaches a high enough concentration in the tank head space, or by contributing to the flammability of other flammable gases such as hydrogen (LANL 1994). Ammonia is also toxic and at relatively low concentrations presents a hazard to human health. The level at which ammonia is considered Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) is 300 ppm (WHC 1993, 1995). Ammonia concentrations at or above this level have been measured inside the head space in a number of SSTs. Finally, unlike hydrogen and nitrous oxide, ammonia is highly soluble in aqueous solutions, and large amounts of ammonia can be stored in the waste as dissolved gas. Because of its high solubility, ammonia behaves in a qualitatively different manner from hydrogen or other insoluble gases. A broader range of scenarios must be considered in modeling ammonia storage and release.

Physical Description

148 p.

Notes

INIS; OSTI as DE96013494

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  • Other Information: PBD: Jul 1996

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  • Other: DE96013494
  • Report No.: PNNL--11237
  • Grant Number: AC06-76RL01830
  • DOI: 10.2172/285502 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 285502
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc667812

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • July 1, 1996

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

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  • April 7, 2016, 2:39 p.m.

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Palmer, B.J.; Anderson, C.M.; Chen, G.; Cuta, J.M.; Ferryman, T.A. & Terrones, G. Evaluation of the potential for significant ammonia releases from Hanford waste tanks, report, July 1, 1996; Richland, Washington. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc667812/: accessed April 26, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.