Advances in the TOUGH2 family of general-purpose reservoir simulators Page: 4 of 10
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ADVANCES IN THE TOUGH2 FAMILY OF GENERAL-PURPOSE RESERVOIR SIMULATORS
Karsten Pruess, Stefan Finsterle, George Moridis, Curt Oldenburg, Emilio Antunez, and Yu-Shu Wu
Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
(510) 486-6732; KPruess@lbl.gov
TOUGH2 is a general-purpose fluid and heat
flow simulator, with applications in geothermal
reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal,
and environmental contamination problems.
This report summarizes recent developments
which enhance the useability of the code, and
provide a more accurate and comprehensive
description of reservoir processes.
Geothermal reservoir simulation is a mature
technology which is now routinely used in the
assessment, development, and management of
geothermal resources (Bodvarsson et al.,
1986). Advances continue to improve the
description of reservoir processes, enhance the
numerical efficiency for solving large
problems on small computers, and generally
increase the utility of reservoir simulators as
practical engineering tools.
Research into mathematical modeling and
numerical simulation of geothermal reservoir
processes has been conducted at the Berkeley
lab for almost twenty years. Since the :late
1980s, mathematical modeling of fluid and
heat flow has increasingly emphasized
problems in nuclear waste disposal and
environmental contamination. Geothermal
reservoir simulation now benefits from
advances made in these areas.
The general objective of our work is -to
improve the power and utility of geothermal
reservoir simulation as a robust and practical
engineering tool. By making state-of-the-art
simulation capabilities widely available to the
geothermal community, we hope to reduce
uncertainties in geothermal -reservoir
delineation and evaluation. Specific goals
include (i) more comprehensive and accurate
description of reservoir processes, (ii)
improved numerical algorithms, (iii) enhanced
portability and ease of use of the simulator,
(iv) development of novel applications of
interest to the geothermal community, and (v)
technology transfer and technical support for
the TOUGH/MULKOM user community.
The TOUGH2 general-purpose simulator was
released to the public in 1991 through the
Department of Energy's software distribution
centert (Pruess, 1991). Subsequently a large
number of enhancements have been
developed. Some of these have also been
released, while others are undergoing beta-
testing or are limited to in-house use at the
present time (see Table 1). In this paper we
focus on recent developments that are of
interest to the geothermal community.
Most of the computational work in a reservoir
simulation arises in the solution of large sets of
coupled. linear equations. The 1991 release of
TOUGH2 provided only one method for this
task, namely, direct solution by sparse matrix
methods. While this is a very stable and robust
approach, storage requirements and numerical
work increase rapidly with problem size and
matrix bandwidth. The practical limit for 2-D
problems is of the order of 2,000 grid blocks;
while 3-D problems are limited to a few
hundred grid blocks. To covercome these
limitations, a set of three preconditioned
conjugate gradient solvers was added to
TOUGH2 (T2CG1; see Table 1). These solvers
use iterative methods, whose computational
work and memory requirements increase only
slightly faster than linearly with problem size,
making possible the solution of large 2-D and
3-D problems with of the order of 10,000 grid
blocks. A technical report (Moridis and Pruess,
tEnergy Science and Technology Software Center
(ESTSC), P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831,
phone (423) 576-2606, fax (423) 576-2865
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Pruess, K.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.; Oldenburg, C.; Antunez, E. & Wu, Y.S. Advances in the TOUGH2 family of general-purpose reservoir simulators, report, April 1, 1996; California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc666894/m1/4/: accessed May 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.