Utilization of Manganiferous Iron Ores Page: 2
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2 UTILIZATION OF MANGANIFEROUS IRON ORES
two practical furnacemen, whose advice and assistance contributed
in a large measure to the operation of the experimental furnace.
The interest and cooperation of D. A. Lyon, chief metallurgist of
the Bureau of Mines, and W. R. Appleby, dean of the School of
Mines of the University of Minnesota, are gratefully acknowledged.
PRESENT USE OF MANGANIFEROUS IRON ORES
Manganiferous iron ores, differing in composition, occur in several
districts in the United States. The Cuyuna district of central
Minnesota, however, contains the most extensive deposits as yet dis-
covered; they have also the advantage of proximity to the Great
Lakes. These ores are now finding an increasing market as sulphur
scavengers in the blast furnace and for producing high-manganese
pig iron. It has been claimed that a superior quality of steel can be
made from high-manganese pig. There is evidence that addi-
tions of ferromanganese are less when high-manganese pig is
used. Table 1, by C. L. Kinney, jr.,2 shows the effect of residual
manganese on additions of manganese made in the ladle:
TABLE 1.-Effect of residual manganese on manganese added in ladle
Resid- eighteightTheo- Actual pounds Pounds
Type of charge ual Mn, Tons Mn in Mn re- added 80 per
per ingot bath, quired, M cent
cent pounds pounds pounds Tons Heat FeMn
Scrap- ................- ----...... 0. 24 40. 90 232 386
Standard iron, high SiO2--.......-.. . 20 42. 36 198 396
Standard iron, low SiO.........------------ . 23 42. 57 230 398
High-manganese iron, high SiOr2..... . 34 42. 44 338 397
High-manganese iron, low Si02_ - .. . 40 42. 70 399 399
Excess limestone- -_____ __._____ . 16 41. 97 157 393
High-silicon iron_____________ ______ . 12 42. 04 118 394
High-phosphorus iron-...........-. . 16 42. 53 159 398
154 7.8 319 399
198 10.0 424 530
168 8.5 362 453
59 2.9 123 154
0 1.0 43 54
236 12. 0 504 630
276 14.0 589 736
239 12.0 510 638
In discussing the effect of residual manganese Kinney says:
It is to be emphasized that a residual manganese in excess of 0.25 per cent
not only reduces the open-hearth cost per ton of ingots by decreasing the
quantity of expensive ferromanganese that must be added to the heat to attain
a given manganese percentage, but because of the protection it gives against
overoxidation in the furnace the quality of the steel is improved. This higher-
quality steel increases the percentage of merchantable product at the mills by
from 1 to 3 per cent, depending on the amount that the residual manganese
exceeds 0.25 per cent; and while such a saving can not be properly shown on
the open-hearth cost sheet, it increases the net profits of the works as a unit.
In the larger steel plants when mixers are used, manganese removes
sulphur during the time the metal is held in the mixer and in the
transfer ladle. As German pig iron has a relatively high manganese
content, steel containing 0.04 per cent sulphur can be made from it,
although the pig iron contained as much as 0.07 per cent sulphur.
2 Kinney, C. L., jr., " Economic significance of metalloids in basic pig iron in basic open-hearth practice":
Trans. Am. Inst. Min. and Met. Eng., vol. 70, 1924, pp. 136-175.
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Joseph, T. L.; Royster, P. H. & Kinney, Selwyne P. Utilization of Manganiferous Iron Ores, report, 1926; Washington D.C.. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc66422/m1/4/: accessed October 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.