Design, fabrication, and testing of a helium-cooled module for the ITER divertor

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The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) will have a single-null divertor with total power flow of 200 MW and a peak heat flux of about 5 MW/m{sup 2}. The reference coolant for the divertor is water. However, helium is a viable alternative and offers advantages from safety considerations, such as excellent radiation stability and chemical inertness. In order to prove the feasibility of helium cooling at ITER relevant heat flux conditions, General Atomics designed, fabricated, and tested a helium-cooled divertor module. The module was made from dispersion strengthened copper, with a heat flux surface 25 mm wide and 80 mm long, ... continued below

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4 p.

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Baxi, C.B.; Smith, J.P. & Youchison, D. August 1, 1994.

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This article is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this article can be viewed below.

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  • Sandia National Laboratories
    Publisher Info: Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
    Place of Publication: Albuquerque, New Mexico

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The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) will have a single-null divertor with total power flow of 200 MW and a peak heat flux of about 5 MW/m{sup 2}. The reference coolant for the divertor is water. However, helium is a viable alternative and offers advantages from safety considerations, such as excellent radiation stability and chemical inertness. In order to prove the feasibility of helium cooling at ITER relevant heat flux conditions, General Atomics designed, fabricated, and tested a helium-cooled divertor module. The module was made from dispersion strengthened copper, with a heat flux surface 25 mm wide and 80 mm long, designed for twice the ITER divertor heat flux. Different techniques were examined to enhance the heat transfer, which in turn reduced the flow and pumping power required to cool the module. It was concluded that an extended surface was the most practical solution. An optimization study was performed to find the best extended surface parameters. The optimum extended surface geometry consisted of fins: 10 mm high, 0.4 mm thick with a 1 mm pitch. It was estimated to require a pumping power of 150 W to remove 20 kW of power. This is more than an order of magnitude reduction in pumping power requirement, compared to smooth surface. The module was fabricated by electric discharge machining (EDM) process. The testing was carried out at SNLA during August 1993. The testing confirmed the design calculations. The peak heat flux during the test was 10 MW/m{sup 2} applied over a surface area of 20 cm{sup 2}. The pumping power calculated from flow rate and pressure drop measurement was about 160 W, which was less than 1% of the power removed. It is planned to test the module to higher temperature limits and higher heat fluxes during coming months. As a result of this effort we conclude that helium cooling of the ITER divertor is feasible without requiring a very large helium pressure or a large pumping power.

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4 p.

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INIS; OSTI as DE96008137

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  • 18. European symposium on fusion technology (SOFT-18), Karlsruhe (Germany), 22-26 Aug 1994

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  • Other: DE96008137
  • Report No.: GA--A21783
  • Report No.: CONF-940843--20
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 216261
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc663982

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • August 1, 1994

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 29, 2015, 9:42 p.m.

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  • April 14, 2016, 3:30 p.m.

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Baxi, C.B.; Smith, J.P. & Youchison, D. Design, fabrication, and testing of a helium-cooled module for the ITER divertor, article, August 1, 1994; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc663982/: accessed September 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.