Notes on Factors Affecting Geometrical Arrangement of Tricycle-Type Landing Gears Page: 2 of 16
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NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
NOTES ON FACTORS AFFECTING GEOMETRICAL ARRANGEMENT
OF TRICYCLE-TYPE LANDING GEARS
By Carl J. Wenzinger and A. R. Kantrowitz
In this paper are discussed the effects of the geo-
metrical arrangement of tricycle landing gears on various
characteristics of an airplane equipped with such a land-
ing gear. The characteristics discussed include direc-
tional stability, overturning tendencies, steering and
ground handling, shimmy, take-off, and porpoising. The
conclusions are summarized in a table.
The tricycle landing gear has recently been receiving
considerable attention because of its possibilities for
greatly improving the stability and handling characteris-
tics of the airplane on the ground and for increasing the
ease with which landings may be made. (See reference 1.)
This type of landing gear has two fixed wheels (usually
equipped with brakes) behind the center of gravity and a
stable castering wheel considerably ahead, which may or
may not be steerable.
An airplane equipped with the tricycle landing gear
will have the following properties not possessed by one
with the conventional gear:
I. The airplane will be directionally stable when
taxying on the ground and will not have a propensity to
ground looping. This freedom from ground looping permits
cross-wind landings with side drift to be made, and the
airplane becomes very maneuverable on the ground.
2. The brakes may be fully applied at contact with
the ground and during the ground run without danger of
nosing over, which considerably decreases the landing dis-
tan c e.
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Wenzinger, Carl J. & Kantrowitz, A. R. Notes on Factors Affecting Geometrical Arrangement of Tricycle-Type Landing Gears, report, April 1937; (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc65097/m1/2/: accessed July 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.