Status of U.S. programs for material protection, control & accounting assistance to Ukraine and Kazakstan Page: 1 of 8
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STATUS OF U.S. PROGRAMS FOR MATERIAL PROTECTION, CONTROL & ACCOUNTING
ASSISTANCE TO UKRAINE AND KAZAKSTAN RECEIVED
NOV 2 11995
C.T. Roche, T.E. Zinneman, & R.R. Rudolph
Argonne National Laboratory
9700 South Cass Avenue
Argonne, IL 60439
The United States is one of several donor states
providing technical assistance to the Newly Independent
States (NIS) of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) for
improving their systems for control of nuclear materials.
Ukraine and Kazakstan have significant nuclear energy
programs. Both countries have committed to
nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. They have signed
the NPT and have safeguards agreements with the U.S.
concerning development of state systems of control,
accounting and physical protection of nuclear materials.
As directed by the DOE - International Safeguards
Division ( now the DOE - Russia / NIS Nuclear
Materials Security Task Force ), technical specialists
from several national laboratories, including Argonne,
Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest and Sandia,
as well as representatives of other U.S. Government
organizations, such as the NRC, DOD/DNA and the New
Brunswick Laboratory, are interacting with government
regulatory and facility personnel of Ukraine and
Kazakstan. Argonne has program coordination
responsibilities for both countries.
In support of agreements between the U.S. and
Ukraine and the U.S. and Kazakstan, the DOE is
responsible for providing technical assistance and
training to aid in the evaluation, design, development, and
implementation of nuclear material safeguards. This
assistance includes: 1) information systems for tracking
and reporting the location of nuclear materials, 2)
application of nuclear measurement techniques for
verifying inventories, 3) material control and accounting
(MC&A) systems, and 4) physical protection (PP)
Site survey teams, including both MC&A and PP
experts from several national labs, have visited Ukraine
G. Kuzmycz, G. Tittemore, & C.E. Engling 0 S r
U.S. DOE-Office of Arms Control & Nonproliferation
1000 Independence Ave. SW
Washington, DC 20585
and Kazakstan. In Ukraine, surveys were performed at a
WWR-M research reactor, at a nuclear materials research
facility, and at VVER-1000 reactors in a nuclear power
plant site. In Kazakstan, site surveys were performed at
a nuclear fuel fabrication facility, at a BN-350 power
reactor and at IGR, IWG and RA research reactors.
Existing MC&A and PP systems at each facility were
reviewed. Areas having deficiencies or not conforming
with IAEA guidelines were noted and potential upgrades
Delegations of specialists from Ukraine and
Kazakstan have visited the U.S. to discuss results of the
site surveys. The visits included tours of a typical nuclear
power plant, research reactor, and other appropriate
facilities to review current U.S. MC&A and PP practices.
Visits with the NRC to develop safeguards regulatory
systems have also occurred.
Following the initial site surveys, design packages
were prepared for upgrades at each of the surveyed
facilities. Multi-laboratory design teams have been
formed to carry out these tasks. After the design phase,
agreed upon equipment will be procured and installed.
U.S. technical experts will assist in the installation and
testing of equipment. In parallel with the upgrade tasks,
various training courses relevant to MC&A and PP will
be provided to Ukrainian and Kazakstani personnel. This
paper summarizes activities to date and future plans.
Under the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of
1991' (Nunn-Lugar Act), the Former Soviet Union
Demilitarization Act of 1992, and The Cooperative
Threat Reduction Act of 1993, DOE may provide
assistance to States of the FSU in areas of MC&A and
PP. At the time of the passage of the Nunn-Lugar Act,
Congress also ensured the availability of appropriated
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Roche, C.T.; Zinneman, T.E. & Rudolph, R.R. Status of U.S. programs for material protection, control & accounting assistance to Ukraine and Kazakstan, article, December 1, 1995; Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626638/m1/1/: accessed December 10, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.