Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

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The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over ... continued below

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51 p.

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Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S. & Hammel, C.J. September 1, 1995.

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This report is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 201 times , with 9 in the last month . More information about this report can be viewed below.

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Description

The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

Physical Description

51 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE95009295

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  • Other Information: PBD: Sep 1995

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  • Other: DE95009295
  • Report No.: NREL/TP--463-7673
  • Grant Number: AC36-83CH10093
  • DOI: 10.2172/135056 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 135056
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc625523

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

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Creation Date

  • September 1, 1995

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 16, 2015, 7:43 a.m.

Description Last Updated

  • March 28, 2016, 12:18 p.m.

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Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S. & Hammel, C.J. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries, report, September 1, 1995; Golden, Colorado. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc625523/: accessed November 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.