Synthesis of surfactant-templated mesoporous materials from homogeneous solutions Page: 1 of 17
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AUG 17 1995
SYNTHESIS OF SURFACTANT-TEMPLATED MESOPOROUS 0 S T
MATERIALS FROM HOMOGENEOUS SOLUTIONS
Mark T. Anderson, James E. Martin, Judy Odinek, Paula Newcomer
Sandia National Laboratories
P.O. Box 5800
Albuquerque, NM 87185
CLASSIFICATION OF POROUS MATERIALS
Porous materials are grouped by IUPAC into three classes' based on their pore di-
ameters, d: (1) microporous - defined as d < 20 A; (2) mesoporous - defined as 20 d
500 A; and (3) macroporous - defined as d> 500 A. The classification scheme does not
explicitly take into account pore size distribution (PSD). Narrow PSDs can give rise to in-
teresting and important size and shape dependent separation, adsorption; and catalytic prop-
erties. Mesoporous materials have pore apertures similar in size to small biological
molecules, macromolecules, metal clusters, and organometallic compounds. Mesoporous
materials that have narrow PSDs may thus be useful as hosts, supports, catalysts, or separa-
tion media for these species. Their PSDs depend critically on the method used to synthe-
SYNTHESIS OF MESOPHASES: TEMPLATES LEAD TO PERIODICITY
In general, three approaches are used to synthesize inorganic mesoporous materials,
(1) propping layered materials with pillars,2 (2) aggregating small precursors to form po-
rous gels,' or (3) templating inorganic species around organic groups.2
In the first approach, organic or inorganic pillars are intercalated into inorganic lay-
ered hosts. The pillars prop the layers apart and create pores. The diffusion of the pillars
into the host leads to a broad distribution of pillar-pillar distances. This anisotropy leads to
nonperiodic structures with broad pore size distributions.
In the second approach, small silica species, inorganic polymers are allowed to ag-
gregate and eventually to gel. The process generally leads to amorphous materials that
have broad pore size distributions. The diffusion paths through the pore system are quite
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Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J. & Newcomer, P. Synthesis of surfactant-templated mesoporous materials from homogeneous solutions, article, August 1, 1995; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc625238/m1/1/: accessed January 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.