Survey of high voltage electron microscopy worldwide in 1998.

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High voltage TEMs were introduced commercially thirty years ago, with the installations of 500 kV Hitachi instruments at the Universities of Nagoya and Tokyo. Since that time 53 commercial instruments, having maximum accelerating potentials of 0.5-3.5 MV, will have been delivered by the end of 1998. Table 1 summarizes the sites and some information regarding those HVEMS which are available in 1998. This corrects, updates and expands an earlier report of this sort [2]. There have been three commercial HVEM manufacturers: AEI (UK), Hitachi and JEOL (Japan). The proportion of the total number of HVEMS produced by each manufacturer is ... continued below

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Allen, C. W. March 5, 1998.

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High voltage TEMs were introduced commercially thirty years ago, with the installations of 500 kV Hitachi instruments at the Universities of Nagoya and Tokyo. Since that time 53 commercial instruments, having maximum accelerating potentials of 0.5-3.5 MV, will have been delivered by the end of 1998. Table 1 summarizes the sites and some information regarding those HVEMS which are available in 1998. This corrects, updates and expands an earlier report of this sort [2]. There have been three commercial HVEM manufacturers: AEI (UK), Hitachi and JEOL (Japan). The proportion of the total number of HVEMS produced by each manufacturer is similar to that reflected in Table 1: AEI and Kratos/AEI (12), Hitachi (20) and JEOL (21). The term Kratos/AEI refers to instruments delivered after the takeover of AEI by Grates in the late 1970's. In Table 1 only maximum accelerating potentials are listed, which is generally also the design value for which the resolution for imaging was optimized. It is important to realize that in many applications, especially those studying irradiation effects, much lower voltages may be employed somewhat routinely to minimize atom displacements by the incident electron beam during analysis. These minimum values range from 100 kV for the AEI and Kratos/AEI instruments to typically 400 kV for the current generation of atomic resolution instruments, the latter being well above the thresholds for displacement in light elements such as Al and Si and for displacement of anions in many ceramic materials such as the high Tc superconductors, for example. An additional potential problem is electron-induced sputtering and differential sputtering (unequal sputtering rates in multicomponent materials), especially when accurate elemental microanalysis is being attempted. These same issues may arise for intermediate voltage TEMs as well, of course.

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5 p.

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OSTI as DE00010672

Medium: P; Size: 5 pages

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  • 14th International Congress on Electron Microscopy, Cancun (MX), 08/31/1998--09/04/1998

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  • Report No.: ANL/MSD/CP-95793
  • Grant Number: W-31109-ENG-38
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 10672
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc623714

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  • March 5, 1998

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  • June 16, 2015, 7:43 a.m.

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  • April 11, 2017, 12:29 p.m.

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Allen, C. W. Survey of high voltage electron microscopy worldwide in 1998., article, March 5, 1998; Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc623714/: accessed November 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.