Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant

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A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The ... continued below

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16 p.

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Behrens, Richard, Jr. & Minier, Leanna M. G. October 25, 1999.

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  • Sandia National Laboratories
    Publisher Info: Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM, and Livermore, CA (United States)
    Place of Publication: Albuquerque, New Mexico

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Description

A study to characterize the low-temperature reactive processes for o-AP and an AP/HTPB-based propellant (class 1.3) is being conducted in the laboratory using the techniques of simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results presented in this paper are a follow up of the previous work that showed the overall decomposition to be complex and controlled by both physical and chemical processes. The decomposition is characterized by the occurrence of one major event that consumes up to {approx}35% of the AP, depending upon particle size, and leaves behind a porous agglomerate of AP. The major gaseous products released during this event include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl. The recent efforts provide further insight into the decomposition processes for o-AP. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates (GFRs) for the products indicate that the major decomposition event consists of three chemical channels. The first and third channels are affected by the pressure in the reaction cell and occur at the surface or in the gas phase above the surface of the AP particles. The second channel is not affected by pressure and accounts for the solid-phase reactions characteristic of o-AP. The third channel involves the interactions of the decomposition products with the surface of the AP. SEM images of partially decomposed o-AP provide insight to how the morphology changes as the decomposition progresses. A conceptual model has been developed, based upon the STMBMS and SEM results, that provides a basic description of the processes. The thermal decomposition characteristics of the propellant are evaluated from the identities of the products and the temporal behaviors of their GFRs. First, the volatile components in the propellant evolve from the propellant as it is heated. Second, the hot AP (and HClO{sub 4}) at the AP-binder interface oxidize the binder through reactions that preferentially strip the hydrogen from the binder and yield HCl and H{sub 2}O with some oxidation of the carbon from the binder. Third, the o-AP in the propellant decomposes in the same manner as in neat o-AP. Finally, AP-derived gaseous products interact with other ingredients in the propellant.

Physical Description

16 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE00014102

Medium: P; Size: 16 pages

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  • 36th JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Meeting, Cocoa Beach, FL (US), 10/18/1999--10/22/1999

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  • Report No.: SAND99-2740C
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 14102
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc621857

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  • October 25, 1999

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 16, 2015, 7:43 a.m.

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  • April 7, 2017, 3:21 p.m.

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Behrens, Richard, Jr. & Minier, Leanna M. G. Thermal Decomposition Characteristics of Orthorhombic Ammonium Perchlorate (o-AP) and an 0-AP/HTPB-Based Propellant, article, October 25, 1999; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc621857/: accessed October 15, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.