Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts

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Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect ... continued below

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Medium: P; Size: 58 pages

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Wai, CM; Frye, JG; Fulton, JL; Bowman, LE; Silva, LJ & Gerber, MA September 30, 1999.

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Description

Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect the behavior of cracking catalysts, reducing product yield and quality. Replacing deactivated catalysts represents a significant cost in petroleum refining. Equally important are the costs and potential liabilities associated with treating and disposing spent catalysts. For example, recent US Environmental Protection Agency rulings have listed spent hydrotreating and hydrorefining catalysts as hazardous wastes. FCC catalysts, though more easily disposed of as road-base or as filler in asphalt and cement, are still an economic concern mainly because of the large volumes of spent catalysts generated. New processes are being considered to increase the useful life of catalysts or for meeting more stringent disposal requirements for spent catalysts containing metals. This report discusses a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Phillips Petroleum, Inc., to identify promising chemical processes for removing metals adhered to spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS, a type of hydrotreating catalyst) and FCC catalysts. This study, conducted by PNNL, was funded by the US Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. Fresh and spent catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. The FCC catalyst was a rare-earth exchanged Y zeolite in a silica-alumina matrix. X-ray fluorescence analyses showed that the rare earths used in preparing the catalysts were a mixture of lanthanum and cerium. Antimony found in the spent catalyst was added during operation of the FCC unit as a way to suppress the adverse effects of deposited nickel. The fresh HDS samples consisted of sulfided nickel and molybdenum on an alumina support. The spent catalyst showed nearly 10% vanadium on the catalyst and a modest increase in nickel and sulfur on the catalyst as a result of operations. Hydrocracking catalysts were not available for this study.

Physical Description

Medium: P; Size: 58 pages

Notes

OSTI as DE00012208

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  • Other Information: PBD: 30 Sep 1999

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  • Report No.: PNNL-13025
  • Grant Number: AC06-76RL01830
  • DOI: 10.2172/12208 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 12208
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc621820

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  • September 30, 1999

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 16, 2015, 7:43 a.m.

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  • April 6, 2016, 6:32 p.m.

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Wai, CM; Frye, JG; Fulton, JL; Bowman, LE; Silva, LJ & Gerber, MA. Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts, report, September 30, 1999; Richland, Washington. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc621820/: accessed September 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.