Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

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Description

Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and ... continued below

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22 p.

Creation Information

Archuleta, M.M. October 1, 1995.

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This report is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 21 times . More information about this report can be viewed below.

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  • Sandia National Laboratories
    Publisher Info: Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
    Place of Publication: Albuquerque, New Mexico

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Description

Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

Physical Description

22 p.

Notes

OSTI as DE96001328

Source

  • Other Information: PBD: Oct 1995

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  • Other: DE96001328
  • Report No.: SAND--95-2128
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • DOI: 10.2172/114035 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 114035
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc621457

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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Creation Date

  • October 1, 1995

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • June 16, 2015, 7:43 a.m.

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  • April 14, 2016, 3:06 p.m.

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Archuleta, M.M. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review, report, October 1, 1995; Albuquerque, New Mexico. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc621457/: accessed September 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.